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A Comprehensive Guide GH3044 Steel

What is GH3044 steel?

GH3044 alloy is a solid solution strengthened nickel-based antioxidant alloy, which is melted by an electric arc furnace, non-vacuum induction furnace, or vacuum induction furnace + electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting process. It has high plasticity and medium heat strength below 900 °C, excellent oxidation resistance, and good stamping and welding process performance. It is suitable for manufacturing sheet stamping and welding structural parts, installation edges, ducts and guide vane parts, heat shields, and guide vanes of the aero-engine main combustion chamber and afterburner under 900 °C for long-term operation.

20230909083439 36859 - A Comprehensive Guide GH3044 Steel

Calculation formula for GH3044 steel

  • GH3044 flat bar: weight per meter (kg)=0.00785 × thickness × Edge width
  • GH3044 pipe: weight per meter (kg)=0.02466 × wall thickness × (Outer diameter wall thickness)
  • GH3044 bar: diameter * diameter * length * 0.00623 = kg/meter (weight per meter)
  • GH3044 plate: length * width * height * 0.00785=kg/meter (weight per meter)

Characteristics of GH3044 steel

GH3044 superalloy is a nickel-based alloy with excellent high temperature performance and corrosion resistance. Its main characteristics include the following: Firstly, GH3044 superalloy has excellent high temperature stability. The alloy cannot easily deform and melt at high temperatures and can withstand extremely high temperatures and pressures. Therefore, it is widely used in aviation, aerospace, energy, and other fields. Secondly, the GH3044 superalloy has good corrosion resistance. The alloy has an excellent performance in acid, alkali, salt, and other corrosive media and can resist various chemical corrosion. Therefore, it is widely used in chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and other fields. In addition, the GH3044 superalloy also has good processability and weldability. The alloy can be processed and formed by various processing methods. It can be welded and connected with other materials, so it has a wide application prospect in manufacturing and maintenance. In summary, the GH3044 superalloy has excellent performance and wide application prospects. Its excellent high temperature stability, corrosion resistance, processing performance, and weldability make it an indispensable and important material in various fields.

Equivalent Grades of GH3044 steel

GH3044 steel equivalent to US ASTM AISI, European Germany DIN EN, British BS EN, France NF EN, Japanese JIS and ISO standard.

Chinese  Russia
GH3044 ЗИ686,ХН60ВТ,ВЖ98

Chemical Composition of GH3044 Steel

Grade GH3044
Ni Remainder
Cr 23.5-26.5
W 13-16
C ≤0.1
S ≤0.013
P ≤0.013
Fe ≤4
Ti 0.3-0.7
Cu ≤0.25
Al ≤0.5
Mo ≤1.5
Si ≤0.8
Mn ≤0.5

Mechanical Properties of GH3044 steel

Yield strength Rp0.2 (MPa) 574 (≥)
Tensile strength Rm (MPa) 896 (≥)
Impact KV (J) 34
Elongation A (%) 22
Reduction in cross section on fracture Z (%) 24
As-Heat-Treated Condition Solution and Aging, Annealing, Ausaging, Q+T,etc
HBW 434

Physical Properties of GH3044 steel

Alloy magnetism: non magnetic

Property Density Temperature T Specific heat Thermal conductivity Electric resistance Modulus of elasticity
kg/dm3 °C/F J/kgK W/mK µΩ·cm kN/mm2
344(≥) 953(≥) 42 12 14

Solution and Aging




Temp. °C/°F
Creep strain limit (10000h) (Rp1.0) N/mm2
(Rp1.0) N/mm2
Creep rupture strength (10000h) (Rp1.0) N/mm2 Melting point/℃
127 315 719 1352-1375

Heat treatment of GH3044/GH44

The intermediate heat treatment temperature is 1140 °C ± 10 °C, holding 3-5 min, air cooling. The final heat treatment temperature is determined according to the working conditions of the parts. The parts that require good thermal fatigue performance are dissolved at 1150 °C, held for 3-5 min, and air-cooled. The parts requiring higher heat strength were dissolved at 1200 °C, held for 3-5 min, and air-cooled.

The standard heat treatment system for each product is:

  • a) Hot rolled sheet, cold rolled sheet, and cold rolled strip, (1120-1160) ℃/AC. Among them: δ≤ 3mm, insulation (8-12) minutes; δ3mm-5mm, insulation (12-16) minutes;
  • b) Hot rolled and forged bars and ring billets, (1120-1160) ℃/AC;
  • c) Circular parts, (1120-1160) ℃/AC or OQ.

Application of GH3044 alloy 

GH3044 alloy has excellent high temperature properties. Its high temperature strength and oxidation resistance are superior to many other alloys. Under high temperature environment, GH3044 alloy can maintain high strength and stability, and is not easy to deform and fracture. At the same time, it also has good corrosion resistance and can resist the erosion of acid and alkali, high temperature gas and corrosive medium. 

The main uses of GH3044 alloy include the following aspects:

  • 1. Aerospace: GH3044 alloy is widely used in aerospace field to manufacture high temperature components of aero-engine, such as turbine blades, combustion chamber, gas turbine and so on. Its excellent high temperature performance and corrosion resistance enable it to maintain excellent performance in extreme working environments.
  • 2. Petrochemical industry: GH3044 alloy has important application value in the petrochemical industry. It can be used to manufacture high temperature furnace tubes, catalyst carriers, reactors and other equipment, which can maintain stable performance under the action of high temperature, high pressure and corrosive media. At the same time, GH3044 alloy can also be used to manufacture oil storage tanks and pipelines, which can effectively resist corrosion and high temperature gas erosion.
  • 3. Nuclear industry: GH3044 alloy also has important applications in the nuclear industry. It can be used to manufacture nuclear reactor fuel elements, fuel cladding and other key components. Due to the high temperature, high radiation and corrosion of the nuclear reactor working environment, the material performance requirements are extremely high, and GH3044 alloy can meet these requirements, with good radiation resistance, corrosion resistance and high temperature stability.
  • 4. Other fields: In addition to the above application fields, GH3044 alloy can also be used to manufacture high temperature furnaces, heating elements, marine engines and so on. In these areas, it can withstand high temperature, high pressure and corrosive media, and maintain a long service life.

In summary, GH3044 alloy is an alloy material with excellent high temperature strength, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance. It is widely used in aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear industry and other fields. It can meet the working requirements of high temperature, high pressure and corrosive media, and maintain a long service life.

GH3044 seamless pipe production process

GH3044 alloy is a high-temperature alloy. Its chemical composition is similar to that of the former Soviet Union ЭИ868, containing a large amount of Cr and W for solid solution strengthening, making the alloy’s hot working temperature narrower, and it is not easy to produce seamless pipes. However, to meet the needs of overhauling pipe parts such as fuel manifolds of advanced aviation engines, YAANG has successfully test-produced 8 specifications of qualified pipes through about 10 months of development work since February 2022. These pipes have passed the long-term trial test and have been used to overhaul this engine.
In order to be able to produce these pipes promptly, in the short term cannot be used like the GH2984 alloy hot piercing process for the production of barren pipes, the use of hot rolled bar or hot extruded bar machine processing of internal holes, followed by cold rolling of the new process. This process requires the following steps:
1. Smelting of GH3044 alloy
Non-vacuum induction furnace + vacuum self-consumption furnace duplex smelting produces GH3044 alloy ingots. Vacuum self-consumption furnace ingot type adopts Φ250mm, electrode size Φ200mm×1700mm. The 200kg vacuum induction furnace smells the GH3044 alloy, and the electrode bar is cast. Then, the vacuum self-consumption remelting duplex process is adopted to produce alloy ingots.
2. Forging and rolling of GH3044 alloy round bar
GH3044 alloy vacuum self-consumption ingot single-sided turning skimming about 5mm; there are local defects and then grinding. The ingot is heated in a continuous furnace. Heating temperature 1160 ℃ ± 10 ℃, holding ≥ 2 h. Back to the furnace reheating time: billet ≥ 200mm, holding 50 minutes. Billet <200mm, holding time 40 minutes. Stop forging temperature ≥ 950 ℃ after forging pile cooling. Rolling is carried out in 550 rolling mills. The Institute of Metals adopts an extrusion process to prepare round bars for pipe billets.
3. Billet machining bore and cold rolling
Ф55mm of hot rolled bars down into each length of 450mm or so. Solution treatment to improve its cold working properties. Then, the boring method machined into Ф52mm × Ф38mm billet. Pipe billet made using SG-50, SG-30, LD-30, LB-20, LB-8 cold rolling machine for cold rolling process. In the cold rolling process, it is necessary to use appropriate rolling process parameters, such as rolling temperature, rolling pressure, rolling speed, etc., to ensure the pipe’s dimensional accuracy and surface quality.
4. Annealing of GH3044 seamless pipe
To further improve the performance of the pipe, annealing is required. The annealing temperature is 1150℃ ± 10℃, and the holding time is 2h, and then annealing is carried out by water cooling or air cooling.
5. GH3044 seamless pipe surface treatment
In the production process, the surface treatment of the pipe is required, such as pickling and grinding, to ensure the surface finish and purity of the pipe.
Overall, the production process of GH3044 seamless pipe includes steps such as alloy smelting, forging and rolling, billet machining bore and cold rolling, pipe annealing, and pipe surface treatment. These steps require appropriate process parameters and technical means to ensure the quality and performance of the pipe.



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