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A Comprehensive Guide To Forgings: Everything You Need to Know About Forgings and Forged Products

Forging is a metalworking process that involves shaping metal using compressive forces. A hammer, die and anvil are used to deform the metal. Forging is the primary means of manufacturing wrought iron and steel for the purposes of creating objects or structures. In this comprehensive guide, you will learn about variations of forging and forged products.

20220513145359 85623 - A Comprehensive Guide To Forgings: Everything You Need to Know About Forgings and Forged Products

What is Forging?

Table of Contents

Forging is a metal shaping technique using compressive, localized forces. The process involves hammering or pressing most often used to make parts out of a variety of metals and alloys. Forged parts may be machined after forging, but are more often machined before, as this can cause distortion of the part. Forging is common in the production of commercial and industrial equipment, such as automobile parts, tools, mechanical components for machines, and even musical instruments.
Forging has been a staple metal fabrication technique since the time of the ancient Mesopotamians. Since its origins in the fertile crescent, forging has experienced significant changes, resulting in a more efficient, faster and more durable process. This is because today, forging is most commonly performed with the use of forging presses or hammering tools powered by electricity, hydraulics or compressed air. Some of the common materials used for forging are carbon steel, alloy steel, microalloy steel, stainless steel, aluminum and titanium.
The earliest evidence for forging comes from copper smelting sites in Egypt around 5500 BCE where copper was hammered into shape by hand before being heated to form ingots.

Material of Forgings

What are forgings made of? Forging materials are mainly carbon and alloy steels of various compositions, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium, etc. and their alloys. The original state of the metal material is steel bar, ingot, metal powder and liquid metal. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the metal before deformation to the cross-sectional area after deformation is called the forging ratio. The correct choice of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable starting forging temperature and final forging temperature, reasonable deformation and deformation speed is very relevant to improve product quality and reduce costs.
Generally, small and medium-sized forgings are made of round bar or square bars as billets. The grain organization and mechanical properties of the bar are uniform and good, the shape and size are accurate, the surface quality is good, and it is easy to organize mass production. As long as the heating temperature and deformation conditions are reasonably controlled, forgings with excellent performance can be forged without large forging deformation.
Ingots are only used for large forgings. Ingot is cast organization, with large columnar crystal and loose center. Therefore, through large plastic deformation, the columnar crystals must be broken into fine grains and the sparse compacted to obtain excellent metal organization and mechanical properties.
The powder metallurgy precast billets are pressed and sintered, and powder forgings can be made in the hot state by die forging without flying edges. The forging powder is close to the density of general die forgings, with good mechanical properties and high precision, which can reduce the subsequent cutting process. Powder forgings have uniform internal organization, no segregation, and can be used to manufacture small gears and other workpieces. However, the price of powder is much higher than the price of general bars, and the application in production is somewhat limited.
By applying static pressure to the liquid metal poured in the die chamber and making it solidify, crystallize, flow, deform plastically and form under pressure, a die forged part of the desired shape and properties can be obtained. Liquid metal die forging is a forming method between die casting and die forging, especially suitable for complex thin-walled parts which are difficult to be formed by general die forging.
Forging materials in addition to the usual materials, such as various components of carbon steel and alloy steel, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and other alloys, iron-based high-temperature alloys, nickel-based high-temperature alloys, cobalt-based high-temperature alloys of deformation of the alloy also use forging or rolling to complete, but these alloys due to its plastic zone is relatively narrow, so the forging will be relatively more difficult, the heating temperature of different materials, open forging temperature and final forging temperature There are strict requirements for the heating temperature, opening forging temperature and final forging temperature of different materials.

ASTM / ASME A/SA 105 ASTM / ASME A 350 , ASTM A 181 LF 2 / A516 Gr.70 A36, A694 F42, F46, F52, F60, F65, F706.

Carbon steel forgings may contain many alloys such as chromium, titanium, nickel, tungsten, zirconium, cobalt, etc., but the carbon content determines hardness. For applications that do not require high operating temperatures or high strength, forged carbon steel parts are more economical than other forged metals.

ASTM / ASME A/SA 182 & A 387 F1, F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91
Copper Alloy:

ASTM SB 61 , SB62 , SB151 , SB152 UNS No. C 70600 (Cu-Ni 90/10), C 71500
(Cu-Ni 70/30), UNS No. C 10100, 10200, 10300, 10800, 12000, 12200
Nickel Alloy:
ASTM SB564, SB160, SB472, SB162 Nickel 200 (UNS No. N02200), Nickel 201 (UNS No. N02201), Monel 400 (UNS
No. N04400), Monel 500 (UNS No. N05500), Inconel 800 (UNS No. N08800), Inconel 825 (UNS No. N08825), Inconel:
600 (UNS No. N06600), Inconel 625 (UNS No. N06625), Inconel 601 (UNS No. N06601), Hastelloy C 276 (UNS No. N10276), Alloy 20 (UNS No. N08020).

Different alloys are combined with steel to give forged alloy steel parts the desired quality. Alloys, including chromium, manganese, molybdenum and nickel, improve strength, toughness and wear resistance. The use of other alloying elements in forged steels allows the manufacture of parts with high corrosion and creep resistance and increased strength at high temperatures.

  • Microalloyed steels

Microalloyed steels improve mechanical quality by adding trace amounts of alloying components to enhance the properties required for specific applications while reducing production costs. Forged microalloyed steels are widely used in automotive applications, including driveline components, crankshafts and connecting rods. Microalloyed steels are often used in conjunction with controlled cooling to eliminate the need to treat the part as a secondary operation.

  • Stainless Steel

ASTM A 182, A 240 F 304, 304L, 304H, 316, 316L, 316Ti, 310, 310S, 321, 321H, 317, 347, 347H, 904L.

ASTM / ASME A/SA 182 F 44, F 45, F51, F 53, F 55, F 60, F 61.

Stainless steels are iron alloys with a chromium content of at least 10.5%. They are known for their excellent corrosion resistance, durability, formability, recyclability, long life and resistance to extreme temperatures, making them suitable for a variety of applications.

  • Titanium

Titanium alloys are more difficult to forge than other alloys and require close control of forging temperatures to achieve optimum mechanical properties. Forged titanium components are preferentially used in applications requiring high strength, corrosion resistance or operating temperatures. Parts made of forged titanium are also lighter than many other metals and alloys.
Depending on the choice of material, forged metal parts are suitable for a variety of applications in multiple industries. Each forged metal has many advantages when used to make mechanical parts.
Benefits of forged carbon, alloys and microalloys
There are many benefits to forging with carbon, alloys and microalloys, including
Benefits of carbon steel. Forging carbon steel produces parts that are resistant to wear, fatigue and abrasion.
Benefits of forging alloys. Forged alloys offer the following benefits: good availability, low cost, superior mechanical properties, and ease of machining.
Benefits of forged microalloys. Depending on the alloy and the forging and cooling temperatures, microalloys offer many advantages, such as improved high circumferential fatigue resistance and increased strength at higher static and dynamic loads.
Forging produces parts that are cost-effective, robust, reliable and can be formed into a variety of shapes. Machine forging processes combined with forged materials such as carbon, alloyed and micro-alloyed steels can provide excellent metallurgical properties suitable for a wide range of applications. Cornell Forge is proud to use all of these materials to meet our customers’ specifications and requirements.

Advantages for Steel Forgings

What makes forged products the first choice for various industries? Listed below are the benefits of using metal forging.
As a result, the potential for unexpected failure under stress or temperature differentials in mechanical forging is negotiated.
The use of steel forgings is the best way to ensure a product is made with high quality and durability. What makes forged products the first choice for various industries? Listed below are the benefits of using metal forging:

  • Cost Effective

Forging offers significant cost advantages, especially in high-volume precision metal fabrication. Materials used in forging are cheaper than other materials used in metalworking processes. In addition, in most cases, it requires fewer auxiliary operations. In high-precision metal fabrication, it is possible to obtain finely machined materials with precise dimensions and good surface finish. Therefore, it requires very low machining, which results in cost efficiency.

  • Different alloys

The great advantage of machine forging is that most metals can be forged into the desired shape. The forging process can be applied to any type of metal. Each metal has a unique set of properties that can be best used for a specific part as needed. Some common forged metals include aluminum, alloys, stainless steel, brass, carbon, titanium, copper, brass, etc. In industries that require high temperatures, alloys containing cobalt, molybdenum or nickel may be used. By using strong forged metals, industry can reduce the use of expensive alloys to obtain high strength parts.

  • Better metallurgical properties

Sometimes, selective heating and uneven cooling that occurs in a machine can cause a specific part to fail. The final product obtained in the forging process is free of any internal voids and has good grain flow. The forging process reduces shrinkage and porosity, which are common in cast products. 

  • Lightweight

Forged products are usually lightweight compared to castings, which makes it easy to transport, install, and move around. This also reduces cost since there will be less volume of material used in making these parts.

  • High Strength

The strength of forged products can be as high as 70% compared to castings with the same dimensions. This is because the grain size in the metal is smaller compared to those in castings, allowing for better ductility or malleability when being shaped by tools during production.

  • Ductile

The ductility or malleability of forged products allows them to withstand impact without breaking easily like castings do when struck with an object with a similar mass moving at high speeds. This property makes forged parts ideal for applications where high impact resistance is required such as shock absorbers and bumpers.

  • Durability

Forged products have a longer life span than other types of metal products. This is because they do not get worn out easily and can withstand high pressure, stress and strain.

  • Ease of manufacture

Forged products can be made in different shapes and sizes according to the needs of customers. They can also be made with lower costs and faster production times than other types of metal products.

  • Tolerance

When compared to machined parts, forged parts have more tolerance in sizes and weights due to their uniformity throughout the process.
Lower manufacturing costs. The process of making forgings is quite simple, which means that it can be done with little or no waste of metal materials. This results in lower costs compared to other manufacturing processes.

  • Improved dimensional accuracy

Forgings are much more accurate than castings when it comes to dimensions, especially in thin-walled parts that may become distorted during cooling. Forged parts can also be produced in complex shapes which cannot be achieved through other methods like casting or forging.

Disadvantages of Forgings

The main disadvantages of forging are:

  • The secondary finishing process requires.
  • The size might be limited because of the press size.
  • The maintenance cost is high.
  • The metals gots distorted if works below the required temperature.
  • The initial cost is high. In advantage, I have mentioned operation cost is low.
  • Some material can not be forged in the forging process.
  • The close tolerance is might not achieve in this process or difficult to maintain.

Characteristics of forgings

Compared with castings, metal can improve its organization and mechanical properties after forging processing. Casting organization after forging method of thermal processing deformation due to metal deformation and recrystallization, so that the original coarse dendritic and columnar grains into fine grains, uniform size of the equiaxial recrystallization organization, so that the ingot within the original segregation, loosening, porosity, slag and other compaction and welding, the organization becomes more compact, improve the plasticity and mechanical properties of the metal.
The mechanical properties of castings are lower than the mechanical properties of forgings of the same material. In addition, forging processing can ensure the continuity of metal fiber organization, so that the fiber organization of forgings and forging shape to maintain consistent, metal flow line integrity, can ensure that the parts have good mechanical properties and long service life using precision die forging, cold extrusion, warm extrusion and other processes to produce forgings, are incomparable to castings.
Forgings are objects in which metal is pressed and shaped by plastic deformation to the required shape or suitable compression force. This force is typically achieved through the use of a hammer or pressure. The forging process builds delicate grain structures and improves the physical properties of the metal. In the real world use of parts, a correct design enables the flow of particles in the direction of the main pressure. Casting is a metal forming object obtained by various casting methods, i.e., the smelted liquid metal is injected into a pre-prepared cast shape by pouring, pressure injection, inhalation or other casting methods, cooled, and after sand-fall, cleaning and post-treatment, the object with certain shape, size and properties is obtained.

What is the purpose of forging?

Forging is a process that uses heat and pressure to shape metal into various parts. It is one of the oldest methods of manufacturing steel, dating back to the Bronze Age. Forged parts are typically stronger than their cast counterparts because they have been worked from a solid piece of material rather than poured into a mold.
The purpose of forging is to create metal parts. Compared to other manufacturing methods, metal forging produces some of the sturdier manufactured parts available.  As metal is heated and pressed, minor cracks are sealed, and any empty spaces in the metal close.
The hot forging process also breaks up impurities in the metal and redistributes such material across the metalwork. This vastly reduces inclusions in the forged part. Inclusions are compound materials implanted inside steel throughout manufacturing that cause stress points in the final forged parts.
While impurities should be managed during the initial casting process, forging further refines the metal.
Another way that forging strengthens metal is by alternating its grain structure, which is the metal material’s grain flow as it deforms. Through forging, a favorable grain structure can be created, making the forged.
The forging process is highly multipurpose and can be used on small parts just a few inches in size to large components that weigh up to 700,000 lbs. It is used to produce critical aircraft parts and transportation equipment. Forging is also used to fortify hand tools such as chisels, rivets, screws, and bolts.
The exact definition of forging depends on the type of material being forged. In general terms, it is working metal into shape by means of pressure without heating it above red heat (approximately 1,100°F). This process does not change the chemical composition of the metal but does change its mechanical properties.
There are three basic types of forges: open hearth, closed hearth and electric furnace. Open hearth is the oldest type of forge and uses charcoal as fuel in an open hearth fire pit with a water-cooled hood over it; closed hearth uses a controlled blast furnace with forced air circulation; electric furnace uses electricity as its power source and is used for making small forgings such as screws or bolts.

What are the different types of forgings?

The pounding action of forging deforms and shapes the metal, which results in unbroken grain flow. This causes the metal to retain its strength. Ancillary effects of this unique grain flow include the elimination of defects, inclusions, and porosity in the product. Another advantage of forging is the relatively low costs associated with moderate and long production runs. Once the forging tools have been created, products can be manufactured at relatively high speeds with minimal downtime. 
Many different types of forgings are available. The main types of forging include:

  • Preform Forging

What is preform forging? In preform forging, a blank is shaped to a desired shape by hammering. The finished product will have the same size and shape as the original blank. This type of forging is most commonly used for sheet metal or wire drawing.

  • Flashless Forging

What is flashless forging? Flashless forging is similar to preform forging except that fewer blows are applied during the process, which means that there will be less material removed from the final product. Flashless forging can also be used with plastic and other materials that cannot withstand high temperatures during the forging process.

  • Hammer Forging

What is hammer forging? Hammer forging uses hammers of various sizes and weights to shape material into desired shapes. Hammer forging usually takes place at room temperature but it can also be performed at elevated temperatures if necessary. This type of forging is most commonly used for making small parts such as fasteners and pins because it produces very precise dimensions without requiring expensive tooling equipment or skilled labor for its production.

  • Press Forging

What is press forging? Press forging is a metalworking process that forms metal parts by applying pressure to a die. The metal is placed in the press with the die, and then the press is closed. Pressure is applied and the metal undergoes plastic deformation.
The advantage of press forging over other processes like extrusion is that it can be used to create complex shapes, with high-quality surfaces and tolerances. This means that more parts can be made at lower cost than through other methods. A disadvantage is that it requires expensive tooling and dies, which must be replaced after repeated use.

  • Impact Forging

What is impact forging? Impact forging is a metalworking process that uses hammers or presses to shape hot metal stock into complex parts with very close tolerances (typically within 0.005 inches). It’s often used for mass production of small parts like fasteners or automotive components because it produces high volumes of identical parts quickly and cheaply.

  • Open-Die Forging

What is open-die forging? This is the most common type of forging process, and it’s used to make parts that are too large or complex to be made by other methods. Open-die forgings are produced in a single operation. The part is placed into the die, which closes around it, and then the material is subjected to high pressure until it flows into the shape of the die. Open-die forgings are often used to make parts with features such as threads or holes.

  • Closed-Die Forging

What is closed-die forging? Closed-die forging (also called closed-face forging) differs from open-die forging in that there is no gap between the punch and die faces during the forging process. Closed dies can produce more precise parts than open dies because there is no gap for material to escape through if something goes wrong during the forging process. Therefore, closed dies can produce better tolerance parts than open dies, but they require more time and energy to operate because they have fewer cycles per minute than open dies – typically only one or two compared with 10 or more for an open die.

  • Net Shape Forging

What is net shape forging? Net shape forging is the process of making a part from a solid metal billet by using a press to shape it into its finished form. The term “net shape” refers to the fact that the dimensions of the billet are those of the final product, so no additional machining is needed to finish it. For example, if you wanted to make a shaft that was 10 mm in diameter and 100 mm long, you would buy or make a billet of steel that was 10 mm in diameter and 100 mm long. The resulting shaft would be “net shaped” because all of its dimensions are set by the size of the original billet.

  • Isothermal Forging

What is isothermal forging? Isothermal forging is a method used to increase material quality and reduce stress concentration in metal parts. Isothermal forging uses controlled heating and cooling rates at specific temperatures over a range of time for each stage within a batch cycle. It provides uniformity in mechanical properties without warping, distortion or cracking due to temperature variations during heating and cooling processes. Isothermal forging reduces stresses caused by thermal cycling which occurs when metal parts are repeatedly heated and cooled during use or production processes such as extrusion, rolling or drawing operations.

  • Near Net Shape Forging

What is near net shape forging? Near net shape forging involves taking a piece that has been machined into its near-finished form and then subjecting it to additional processing steps such as rolling or forging. This process produces parts that are more complex than those that can be produced through other methods such as extrusion or casting. Near net shape forging allows for parts with complex geometries to be produced using fewer processing steps than would otherwise be required by other processes such as cold rolling or hot forming operations. Near net shape forging allows for parts with complex geometries to be produced using fewer processing steps than would otherwise be required by other processes such as cold rolling or hot forming operations.

  • Upset Forging

What is upset forging? Forging is a manufacturing process that uses forging presses to shape and form metal. The most common types of forging are upset forging and roll forging. Upset forging is used for making parts with flanges, shoulders or other features that are thicker than the base material, while roll forging is used to make thinner parts or complex shapes.

  • Roll Forging (also called Ring Rolling)

What is roll forging? This is a manufacturing process where a cylindrical piece of steel is placed between two dies and hammered until it has been stretched into a different shape. This process requires less force than other types of forging because only one side of the metal needs to be stretched, while both sides are compressed during hot working processes such as extrusion or upsetting. Rolled products are typically uniform in thickness throughout their length and widths are determined by the diameter of the dies used during production.

  • Hot Forging

What is hot forging? Hot forging is a metal shaping process that uses localized compressive heat and pressure to change the shape of a workpiece. The most common hot forging process is the upsetting process in which the end of the forging die has a smaller diameter than its base. This allows for the creation of male and female dies. The smaller diameter die is placed into a larger diameter die and compressed to form a mating surface. Once this occurs, the part is ejected from the dies and allowed to cool before being processed further.

  • Cold Forging

What is cold forging? Cold forging is also known as cold working or cold heading. It involves using machines to deform metal without heating it. Cold forging can be used to create shapes that cannot be made by hot working alone, or where the metal must be cooled slowly to prevent cracking.

Hot Forging Vs. Cold Forging

In general, hot forging is done at a relatively high temperature to allow the material to flow and the tooling to work properly. Cold forging is done at room temperature or below.
The hot-forging process uses a heated die with a ram that pushes the workpiece against the die. The tooling is typically made of a material that can withstand the high temperatures required by this type of forging. The hot-forging process works well for materials that are ductile and have low tensile strength.
Cold-forging processes use dies made from tool steel or tungsten carbide, which are harder than normal dies used in hot-forging processes. They also use hardened punches that can withstand high temperatures if needed. The cold-forging process works well for materials that are more brittle and have high tensile strength.

Hot Forging

When a piece of metal is hot forged, it must be heated significantly. The average forging temperatures required for hot forging of different metals are:

  • Up to 1150°C for steel;
  • 360 to 520°C for aluminum alloys;
  • 700 to 800°C for copper alloys.

In the hot forging process, the billet or blank is heated by induction heating or in a forging furnace or oven to a temperature above the recrystallization point of the metal. This extreme heat is necessary to avoid strain hardening of the metal during the deformation process. Because the metal is in a plastic state, quite complex shapes can be produced. This metal remains ductile and malleable.
In order to forge certain metals, such as super alloys, a hot forging method called isothermal forging is used. Here, the die is heated to a temperature close to that of the billet to avoid surface cooling of the part during the forging process. Forging is also sometimes performed in a controlled environment to minimize the formation of oxide.
Traditionally, manufacturers choose hot forging to make parts because it allows the material to deform in a plastic state and the metal is easier to work with. Hot forging is also recommended for deforming metals with high formability ratios, which is a way to measure how much deformation the metal can withstand without creating defects. Other considerations for hot forging include:

  • Production of discrete parts;
  • Low to medium precision;
  • Low stress or low work hardening;
  • Homogeneous grain structure;
  • Increased ductility;
  • Elimination of chemical inconsistencies and porosity.
  • Possible disadvantages of hot forging include:
  • Less precise tolerances;
  • Possible warpage of the material during cooling;
  • Changing metal grain structure;
  • Possible reactions between the surrounding atmosphere and the metal (fouling).

Cold Forging (or Cold Forming)

Cold forging deforms the metal below the recrystallization point. Cold forging significantly increases tensile and yield strengths while decreasing ductility. Cold forging is usually performed near room temperature. The most common metals used in cold forging applications are usually standard or carbon alloy steels. Cold forging is usually a closed-die process.
Cold forging is usually preferred when the metal is already soft (e.g., aluminum). This process is usually cheaper than hot forging and the end product requires little to no finishing work. Sometimes, when the metal is cold forged to the desired shape, residual surface stresses need to be removed after heat treatment. Because cold forging increases the strength of the metal, it may sometimes be possible to use a lower grade of material to produce usable parts that cannot be made from the same material by machining or hot forging.
Manufacturers may choose cold forging over hot forging for a number of reasons, as cold forged parts require little or no finishing, so this step in the manufacturing process is often optional, which saves money. Cold forging is also less susceptible to contamination issues and the final part has a better overall surface finish. Other benefits of cold forging include:

  • Easier to give directional properties
  • Improved reproducibility;
  • Increased dimensional control;
  • Handling high stresses and high die loads;
  • Produces net shape or near net shape parts.

Some possible disadvantages include:

  • Metal surfaces must be clean and free of oxidation prior to forging.
  • This metal is less ductile.
  • Residual stresses may be generated.
  • Requires heavier, more powerful equipment.
  • Requires more robust tools.

Warm forging

Warm forging is performed at temperatures below the recrystallization temperature but above room temperature to overcome the disadvantages and gain the advantages of hot and cold forging. Oxide formation is not an issue compared to hot forging and tolerances can be closer. Tooling costs are lower and the force required to manufacture is lower than with cold forging. Strain hardening is reduced and plasticity is increased compared to cold working.

What is the difference between forging and casting?

Forging is a process that involves heating a piece of metal and then shaping it into a desired shape by hammering or pressing. This can be done either on an anvil or on specialized machines called drop hammers. Forging allows for the creation of strong, high-quality pieces with complex shapes and intricate details that are impossible to make using traditional machining methods.
Casting is another method for creating metal parts by pouring molten metal into a mold. This process is used for low-cost parts such as gears and fasteners but does not produce high-quality parts since any defects in the casting will show up in your finished product.
Forged metals are stronger than cast metals because they have a grain structure that forms during the forging process. Grain structures are formed when atoms move differently when heated than when cooled down again, which results in crystals forming inside the metal during heating. This crystal structure resembles grains of sand, which makes the metal harder and more brittle than it would be without this grain structure.

Forging Processes

What is forging process? Forging is the forming or deformation of metal in the solid state. Many forges are accomplished by an upsetting process in which a hammer or punch is moved horizontally to press against the end of a rod or bar, thereby widening and changing the shape of the end. The part usually passes through successive stations before reaching its final shape. High strength bolts are “cold headed” in this manner. Engine valves are also formed by header forging.
In drop forging, the part is hammered into the shape of the finished part in a die, much like a blacksmith’s open-die forging, in which the metal is hammered into the desired shape. A distinction is made between open-die forging and closed-die forging. In open die forging, the metal is never fully restrained by the die. In a closed die or press die, the forging metal is confined between the half-die. Repeated hammer blows on the die force the metal into the die shape and the two halves of the die eventually meet. The energy for the hydraulic hammer can be supplied by steam or pneumatic, mechanical or hydraulic pressure. In a true drop hammer forging, gravity alone drives the hammer down, but many systems use a combination of power assist and gravity. The hammer provides a series of relatively high speed, low force hammer blows to close the die.
In pressure forging, high pressure replaces high speed and the two halves of the die are closed in one stroke, usually provided by a power screw or hydraulic cylinder. Hammer forging is typically used to produce smaller volumes of parts, while pressure forging is typically used for high volume production and automation. The slow application of pressure forging tends to handle the interior of the part better than hammering and is often used for large, high-quality parts (e.g., titanium aircraft bulkheads). Other specialized forging methods vary depending on these basic topics: for example, bearing rings and large ring gears are made by a process called roll ring forging, which produces seamless round parts.
Different forging methods have different processes, including the longest process of hot die forging, the general order is: forging billet feeding; forging billet heating; roll forging preparation; die forging forming; cutting edge; punching; correction; intermediate inspection, inspection of forging size and surface defects; forging heat treatment, to eliminate forging stress, improve metal cutting properties; cleaning, mainly to remove surface oxidation; correction; inspection, general forgings to go through the appearance and hardness inspection, important forgings also after the chemical composition analysis, mechanical properties, residual stress and other tests and non-destructive testing.

What kind of equipment is used for forging?

The most popular forging equipment is the hammer and anvil. The idea behind the hammer and anvil is still used today in drop hammer forging equipment. The hammer is raised and then dropped or pushed into the workpiece, which rests on the anvil base. The main difference between drop hammers is the way the hammer is powered, most commonly air and steam hammers. Drop hammers are usually operated in a vertical position. This is because the excess energy is not released in the form of heat or sound, i.e., it is not the energy used to shape the workpiece that needs to be channeled to the base. A large machine base is also required to absorb the impact.
To overcome some of the drawbacks of the falling hammer, a counter-impactor or impactor is used. Both the hammer and the anvil move through the impactor with the workpiece sandwiched between them. Here, the excess energy becomes recoil, allowing the machine to work horizontally and with a smaller base. This will reduce noise, heat and vibration. It also creates a very different flow pattern. These machines are used for open-die forging or closed-die forging.
Presses are used for press forging. The two main types are mechanical and hydraulic presses. Mechanical presses use cams, cranks and switches to perform pre-set and reproducible hammer blows. Due to the characteristics of this type of system, different forces can be used at different stroke positions. As a result, these presses are up to 50 strokes per minute faster than hydraulic presses. Their capacities range from 3 million to 160 million. Hydraulic presses use fluid pressure and pistons to generate force. The advantage of hydraulics over mechanics is its flexibility and superior performance. The disadvantages are that they are slower to operate, larger and more costly.

Roll forging, automatic hot forging and upsetting processes all use specialized machinery.

Standard for forgings





Description Status
A 19 1936 Quenched-and-Tempered Carbon-Steel Axles, Shafts, and Other Forgings for Locomotives and Cars Replaced by A 236 /no materials/
A 63   Alloy Steel Forgings for Locomotives and Cars Replaced by A 237 /no materials/
A 105/A 105M 2005 Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications /1/
A 133   Alloy-Steel Forgings for Locomotives and Cars Withdrawn 1941 /no materials/
A 136   Forge-Welded Steel Pipe Withdrawn 1945 /no materials/
A 181/A 181M 2006 Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping /2/
A 182/A 182M 2009 Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service /88/
A 235   Carbon Steel Forgings for General Industrial Use Replaced by A 668/A 668M /no materials/
A 236   Carbon Steel Forgings for Railway Use Withdrawn 1981 /no materials/
A 237   Alloy Steel Forgings for General Industrial Use Replaced by A 668/A 668M /no materials/
A 238   Forgings, Alloy Steel, for Railway Use Replaced by A 730 /no materials/
A 243   Carbon and Alloy Steel Ring, Hollow Cylinder, and Disk Forgings for General Industrial Use Replaced by A 668/A 668M /no materials/
A 266/A 266M 2008 Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components /4/
A 288 2008 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Magnetic Retaining Rings for Turbine Generators /8/
A 289/A 289M 2008 Alloy Steel Forgings for Nonmagnetic Retaining Rings for Generators /8/
A 290/A 290M 2005 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Rings for Reduction Gears /19/
A 291/A 291M 2005 Steel Forgings, Carbon and Alloy, for Pinions, Gears and Shafts for Reduction Gears /20/
A 292   Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Generator Rotors and Shafts Replaced by A 469/A 469M /no materials/
A 293   Steel Forgings, Carbon and Alloy, for Turbine Generator Rotors and Shafts /no materials/
A 294   Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Wheels and Disks /no materials/
A 336/A 336M 2009 Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts /45/
A 350/A 350M 2007 Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components /13/
A 369/A 369M 2006 Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service /15/
A 372/A 372M 2008 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels /48/
A 402   Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts Specially Heat Treated for High-Temperature Service Withdrawn 1958 /no materials/
A 404 1968 Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pip Flanges, Forged Fitings, and Valves and Parts Specially Heat Treated for High-Temperature Service Withdrawn 1974 /no materials/
A 430/A 430M 1991 Austentic Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for Hi GH-Temperature Service Replaced by A312/ A312M /11/
A 456/A 456M 2008 Magnetic Particle Examination of Large Crankshaft Forgings /no materials/
A 461   Precipitation Hardening Alloy Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service Replaced by A564/ A564M /no materials/
A 468   Method of Normal Magnetic Induction Characteristics of Carbon and Alloy Steel Generator Rotor Forgings Replaced by A6/ A6M /no materials/
A 469/A 469M 2007 Vacuum-Treated Steel Forgings for Generator Rotors /7/
A 470/A 470M 2005 Vacuum-Treated Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Rotors and Shafts /17/
A 471 2009 Vacuum-Treated Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Rotor Disks and Wheels /11/
A 473 2009 Stainless Steel Forgings /90/
A 477   Hot-Worked, Hot-Cold Worked and Cold-Worked Alloy Steel Forgings and Forging Billets for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures Withdrawn 1991 /no materials/
A 508/A 508M 2005 Quenched and Tempered Vacuum-Treated Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessels /15/
A 521/A 521M 2006 Steel, Closed-Impression Die Forgings for General Industrial Use /14/
A 522/A 522M 2007 Forged or Rolled 8 and 9% Nickel Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Low-Temperature Service /2/
A 541/A 541M 2005 Quenched and Tempered Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components /36/
A 579/A 579M 2009 Superstrength Alloy Steel Forgings /27/
A 592/A 592M 2009 High-Strength Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel Forged Fittings and Parts for Pressure Vessels /3/
A 594   Carbon Steel Forgings with Special Magnetic Characteristics Withdrawn 1986 /no materials/
A 638/A 638M 2004 Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service /3/
A 649/A 649M 2009 Forged Steel Rolls Used for Corrugating Paper Machinery /9/
A 654 1979 Special Requirements for Steel Forgings and Bars for Nuclear and Other Special Applications Withdrawn 1983 /no materials/
A 668/A 668M 2004 Steel Forgings, Carbon and Alloy, for General Industrial Use /13/
A 694/A 694M 2008 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service /18/
A 695 1995 Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quality, for Fluid Power Applications Withdrawn 2002 /2/
A 696 2006 /2/
A 705/A 705M 2009 Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Forgings /19/
A 707/A 707M 2007 Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Flanges for Low-Temperature Service /8/
A 711/A 711M 2007 Steel Forging Stock /no materials/
A 723/A 723M 2008 Alloy Steel Forgings for High-Strength Pressure Component Application /18/
A 727/A 727M 2009 Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Components with Inherent Notch Toughness /1/
A 730 1999 Forgings, Carbon and Alloy Steel, for Railway Use Replaced by A668/668M /no materials/
A 765/A 765M 2007 Carbon Steel and Low-Alloy Steel Pressure-Vessel-Component Forgings with Mandatory Toughness Requirements /6/
A 766/A 766M   Forgings Withdrawn 1989 /1/
A 768/A 768M 2005 Vacuum-Treated 12 % Chromium Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Rotors and Shafts /5/
A 769/A 769M 2005 Carbon and High-Strength Electric Resistance Forge-Welded Steel Structural Shapes /8/
A 788/A 788M 2008 Steel Forgings, General Requirements /no materials/
A 823 2008 Statically Cast Permanent Mold Gray Iron Castings /14/
A 827/A 827M 2007 Plates, Carbon Steel, for Forging and Similar Applications /6/
A 836/A 836M 2007 Titanium-Stabilized Carbon Steel Forgings for Glass-Lined Piping and Pressure Vessel Service /1/
A 837/A 837M 2006 Steel Forgings, Alloy, for Carburizing Applications /7/
A 859/A 859M 2009 Age-Hardening Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components /3/
A 891/A 891M 2008 Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Forgings for Turbine Rotor Disks and Wheels /2/
A 909/A 909M 2006 Steel Forgings, Microalloy, for General Industrial Use /4/
A 940/A 940M 2006 Vacuum Treated Steel Forgings, Alloy, Differentially Heat Treated, for Turbine Rotors /2/
A 952/A 952M 2002 Forged Grade 80 and Grade 100 Steel Lifting Components and Welded Attachment Links /no materials/
A 965/A 965M 2006 Steel Forgings, Austenitic, for Pressure and High Temperature Parts /43/
A 982/A 982M 2005 Steel Forgings, Stainless, for Compressor and Turbine Airfoils /12/
A 983/A 983M 2006 Continuous Grain Flow Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Crankshafts for Medium Speed Diesel Engines /10/
A 986/A 986M 2006 Magnetic Particle Examination of Continuous Grain Flow Crankshaft Forgings /no materials/
A 1021/A 1021M 2005 Martensitic Stainless Steel Forgings and Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service /16/
A 1048/A 1048M 2006 Pressure Vessel Forgings, Alloy Steel, Higher Strength Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten for Elevated Temperature Service /2/
A 1049/A 1049M 2006 Stainless Steel Forgings, Ferritic/Austenitic (Duplex), for Pressure Vessels and Related Components /10/

Welding and Filler materials





Description Status
A 205   Iron and Steel Filler Metal (Arc-Welding Electrodes and Gas-Welding Rods) Replaced by A233 /no materials/
A 233   Mild Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes Withdrawn 1970 /no materials/
A 234/A 234M 2007 Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service /18/
A 316   Low-Alloy Steel Covered Filler Metal Arc-Welding Electrodes Withdrawn 1970 /no materials/
A 371   Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes Withdrawn 1969 /no materials/
A 399   Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes Withdrawn 1969 /no materials/
A 558   Bare Mild Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Withdrawn 1969 /no materials/
A 559   Mild Steel Electrodes for Gas Metal-Arc Welding Withdrawn 1969 /no materials/

Specification of forgings

Forging is the shaping of metal using a hammer or other tool. The process results in a permanent mold, and the metal shape becomes fixed.
The forging process is often used to create metal parts that are stronger than those made by casting or machining. Also, forging can create shapes that are not possible with casting, such as thin-walled structures. The metal may be heated to make it easier to work with and then hammered into shape.
There are several types of forging processes: upsetting, swaging, upsetting and swaging, fullering, bending, drawing and upsetting and swaging.
Upsetting is a technique that increases the cross section of a bar stock by forcing it through dies with progressive force applied at right angles to the axis of the bar. The die has a series of steps that gradually increase in size so that each step pushes down into the previously formed portion and forces it down until it reaches its final size. When this process is completed, the diameter of the bar will be larger than its original size by an amount equal to all of the steps in the die set up combined. Swaging works similarly except there is only one step per punch instead of multiple steps as in upsetting.
Forgings are metal parts that are shaped by forging, which uses a hammer and metal-forming dies to shape metal. They can be created in many different shapes and sizes, from small metal pieces to large castings. The forging process is used to produce components for a wide variety of applications in industries such as aerospace, automotive and industrial manufacturing.
Forging specifications include the following:

  • Material type – The material type is usually defined by the alloying element content or the material specification number (MS). For example, an ASTM A276 alloy steel has a specific composition and can be ordered by specifying ASTM A276 or by ordering the grade with a specific chemical analysis.
  • Dimensions – Forgings can be ordered by specifying dimensions such as outside diameter (OD), inside diameter (ID), thickness and length. For example, an ASTM A563 forging may have dimensions of 1/16 inch OD x 3/8 inch ID x 3 inches long. Some forgings may have multiple diameters with different wall thicknesses (WT) so they can be used in several different applications within the same specification range.

Heat treatment of forgings

Heat treatment after closed die forging plays an important role in developing desired properties such as internal stress relief, refinement of grain structure, and improvement of mechanical and physical properties. For workability, Epower metals offers forgings in annealed, normalized, normalized and tempered, process annealed, spheroidized or fully annealed conditions. Steel forgings can then be quenched and tempered to achieve the final desired properties. Below we will describe some of the common post-forging heat treatments offered by

Full annealing
The forging restores the softness of the metal. Forgings are heated to a specific temperature and then cooled in a furnace at specific time intervals to obtain uniform softness throughout the forging.
Involves heating the forging to a specific temperature and then allowing the forging to cool in still air. The result is a recovery of ductility. Normalized forgings are cheaper than fully annealed forgings because full annealing relies on furnace-controlled cooling.
Quenching and Tempering
Metal forgings are first quenched and then heated again to between 400 and 600°C. Tempering establishes the correct balance of strength and ductility within the forging.
Process Annealing
Used for mild steel forgings. The forgings are heated to below the fully annealed or normalized temperature and then cooled in still air. This changes the grain size and flow of the forging.
Used for high carbon steel forgings as well as tool steel and alloy steel forgings. The process forms spheres throughout the structure of the forging, thereby improving machinability.
Quenching and tempering is the most widely used heat treatment, which is effective in improving the hardness of steel forgings, increasing their strength, and obtaining better wear resistance at a lower cost.
Heat treatment, through a heating process, changes the properties of steel forgings such as carbon steel or alloy steel. It is used to harden, soften or modify other properties of materials with different crystal structures at low and high temperatures. The type of transformation depends on the temperature to which the material is heated, the rate of heating, the time of heating, the temperature to which it is first cooled, and the rate of cooling. For example, quenching hardens steel by heating it to a high temperature and then quickly immersing it in room temperature oil, water or brine to prevent carbon atoms from moving through the crystal structure and forming carbides, thus softening the metal. The two main methods of softening metal (to restore its ductility) are annealing, in which the temperature is slowly increased, held for a period of time, and then slowly cooled, and tempering, in which the metal is slowly heated in an oil bath and held for several hours.

Machining of forgings

Machining of forgings is done by using a machining center and/or CNC lathe. The material to be machined is set in a chuck or collet and the tool is mounted on the spindle.
The main purpose of machining forgings is to finish and shape parts prior to heat treatment, to eliminate roughness, surface defects and other blemishes.
A forged part usually requires a certain degree of finishing before it can be used for its intended purpose. The same applies to cast parts that are machined after casting or sand castings that are finished by grinding or lapping.
The most common methods of machining forgings are turning, milling and drilling. There are several types of tools available for this purpose such as single point cutting tools and multiple point cutting tools (center drills).
Machining of forgings is done in the following steps:

  • 1. Rounding and deburring – The outer surface of the forging is rounded with a lathe, followed by deburring (removal of sharp edges) using a grinder.
  • 2. Drilling holes – Holes are drilled into the forging using drill presses or other machine tools.
  • 3. Grooving – Grooves are machined into the forging to allow for oil flow through the part during operation. These grooves can be machined before or after heat treatment depending on the type of material being used in the forging process.
  • 4. Heat treating – Forgings that undergo heat treatment require additional machining processes to prepare them for this process. The first step is to remove any scale from the parts after heat treatment has been completed and allow them to cool down completely before continuing with any further machine operations on them. Once they have cooled down, they are then ground down to remove any surface rust or scale that may have formed during processing and finally bead blasted or shot blasted to remove any remaining surface contaminants from the part as well as roughen up its surface slightly so that paint will adhere better when it is applied later on down into these grooves we just created earlier through our grinding process.

Measurement of forgings

The following are some of the most common methods of measuring hot forgings:
1. Measurement of the outer diameter and length of forgings.
Forging dimensions are established by the manufacturer or by the customer. The dimensions must be checked for accuracy before any further processing can be performed.
The inner diameter is measured with a micrometer, which is calibrated to read directly in thousandths of an inch (or mm). This measurement is taken from the centerline of the bore to the end face of the forging.
The outer diameter is measured with calipers, which are calibrated to read directly in thousandths of an inch (or mm). This measurement is taken from the outside surface of the forging to its inside surface where it contacts any other part. If there is no contact between parts, then this measurement may be taken from any convenient point on one side of the forging to any convenient point on another side parallel to it.
The length is measured with calipers which are calibrated to read directly in thousandths of an inch (or mm). This measurement is taken from one end face to another end face parallel to it at right angles to all other faces and surfaces.
2. Measurement of the weight and mass of forgings.
When measuring the weight and mass of forgings, the product must be in a state that is suitable for weighing. It is therefore necessary to check whether there are any inappropriate features (pits, cracks, etc.) on the surface of the article.
Depending on the material and its structure, it may be necessary to prepare the article for measurement by grinding or polishing.
If there are no distortions in the shape of a forging, it can be weighed directly using a digital scale. The accuracy of digital scales depends on their construction and design. In particular, they can vary significantly due to their sensitivity to vibration and the use of batteries. For example, if you have an impact hammer with a weight of 100 kg and decide to weigh it with a digital scale with accuracy ± 50 grams, then you will receive a value between 50 kg and 150 kg.
The weight and mass of forged parts can be calculated from the average density:

  • Density (kg/m3) = Weight (g) / Volume (cm3).

3. Measurement of the inner diameter and thickness of forgings (including the measurement of holes).
Measurement of forgings is a separate area of measuring in which the diameter and thickness of forgings are measured. The measurement of holes in forgings is also an important part of the process. The hole diameter must be as small as possible, but also as large as possible to ensure that it can be used later.
Forging measurement methods are:
Forging inner diameter measurement method (forging ring measuring method). This method measures the inner diameter of forgings by using a special ring gauge with a constant radius that matches the outer diameter of the forging ring.
Forging outer diameter measurement method (forging disc measuring method). This method measures the outer diameter of forgings by using a forged disc with an inner diameter equal to or slightly smaller than the outer diameter of the forging ring.
4. Measurement of the hardness value and strength value of forgings.
The hardness value and strength value of forgings are measured by the Rockwell hardness tester, Brinell hardness tester, or Vickers hardness tester. Forging hardness is generally measured at a depth of about 0.5 mm from the surface of the forging. The smaller the depth at which measurements are made, the more accurate the results will be. However, if measurements are made too close to the surface of an object, it may be difficult to determine whether or not there is a problem with the surface condition of that object.
The Rockwell hardness tester measures the depth of indentation caused by a hardened steel ball pressed against the surface of an object under test. The Brinell hardness tester uses a diamond pyramid-shaped tip pressed against an indentation in an object under test to measure its hardness value. The Vickers hardness tester uses a hardened steel ball pressed against an indentation in an object under test at a fixed load until it reaches its maximum load capacity (force).

Inspection of forgings

The following is a list of inspection methods that may be used to detect defects in forged parts:
Visual Inspection: Visual inspection is used to check the size and shape of forgings. It is also used to detect surface defects and cracks.
Inspection by Magnification: Magnification is an effective method of inspection, especially when it is used in conjunction with other methods such as radiography and ultrasonic testing. Magnification allows the inspector to detect surface defects that may be difficult to find using other methods. A 10X magnification lens can be used to detect surface imperfections that are too small for the unaided eye to see. Magnification may also be useful in detecting internal flaws that cannot be detected by radiographs or ultrasonic testing.
Surface Defects and Shrinkage Cracks: Surface defects are usually caused by the improper use of forging tools or by poor-quality material. If a forging is made from a poor quality material, it will have a greater number of surface defects than if made from a high-quality material. Sometimes surface defects can be removed by grinding but sometimes they cannot be removed and must be scrapped.
Shrinkage Cracks are often caused by the use of low quality steel or by improper heat treatment. Shrinkage cracks occur when metal cools unevenly due to poor heat treating methods or improper forge welds. Some shrinkage cracks can be repaired with welding but some cannot be repaired and must be scrapped.
The most common surface defects are:
Scratches. These are caused by a variety of factors, such as improper handling, improper lubrication and abrasive particles in the metal. Scratches on the surface of a forging can be removed by grinding or shot blasting.
Lines. These are caused by impurities in the metal, such as inclusions, oxides and other foreign matter. Lines can either be removed by grinding or shot blasting or they may remain on the forging surface after machining.
Burns. Burns result when heat is applied to one section of the forging at a time instead of being evenly distributed throughout the forging. The area over which heat is applied becomes overheated and oxidizes, causing a discoloration on the surface of the forged part. This discoloration will not affect the strength or performance of the forged part but it may make it unattractive if it is visible after machining operations have been completed.
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) detects the chemical composition of an object by using x-rays that interact with the elements present in it and then emitting wavelengths that correspond with their respective elements.
Inspection by Radiography: Radiography uses X-rays to evaluate the internal structure and surface of a forging. It is particularly useful for determining whether there are any internal flaws in a forging, such as porosity, voids or inclusions; however, radiographic examination is not always sufficient for evaluating surface imperfections because it does not provide magnification capabilities and does not reveal surface defects on flat surfaces as well as they would appear under magnification.
Nondestructive Testing
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a powerful tool used to perform inspections on structures, components and other items without causing any damage to the item being inspected.
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a powerful tool used to perform inspections on structures, components and other items without causing any damage to the item being inspected.
Engineers use NDT techniques to determine if an item meets design specifications and can be used as intended. NDT methods include ultrasonic testing (UT), magnetic particle testing (MT) and liquid penetrant testing (PT). NDT is also used for quality assurance tests in manufacturing processes.
Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT): Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) is a non-destructive testing method that detects discontinuities in the surface of metal parts.
PT is commonly used to inspect welds, but it can also detect cracks in castings and forgings. The use of liquid penetrant testing is governed by ASTM F904, which covers the inspection of welds for discontinuities and defects.
Liquid penetrant testing (PT) is an inspection method that uses a solvent or dye to detect surface discontinuities in metal. The solvent/dye penetrates into small cracks and voids on the surface of the metal part being inspected and appears as a dark line when viewed against a background color such as white or black. PT is widely used on welded joints to detect defects such as porosity, undercuts and misalignment.
Magnetic Particle Testing: Magnetic particle testing (MT) is used to detect internal inclusion, porosity or voids in the metal. Magnetic particles are applied on the surface of the material; if there is an inclusion present, it will be detected.
Ultrasonic Testing: Ultrasonic testing (UT) involves sending ultrasonic waves through the material to detect internal defects and cracks. UT equipment can detect small cracks as well as large ones.

Quality control of forgings

Whenever our customers come to our company for the first time, after checking our production facilities, another concern is how we perform quality control, which will give them the confidence to place an order. Typically, we inspect new steel forging parts in terms of material, dimensions, mechanical properties and defect inspection.

Material Inspection

Ordering material is the first step in manufacturing steel forgings. To ensure that the material meets our needs, we need a material certificate from the material factory.
The material certificate alone is not enough; once the material is delivered to our plant, our technicians will also cut a small piece, test the chemical composition with a spectral analyzer, and check that each tested component is within the elemental range.
In addition, after forging, we will also check the forged blanks to see if the material composition may have changed.

Dimensional Inspection

Dimensional inspection is the most important task for custom steel forgings. Any dimensional and tolerance errors may render the product unusable. To ensure final assembly, the dimensions and tolerances of the steel forgings should be as accurate as possible. Therefore, our quality inspectors will be responsible for the dimensional inspection of the finished product.
One method is to test instruments such as calipers, depth gauges, micrometers, inside micrometers, height gauges, etc. These will be done by manual operation. To get more accurate dimensions, CMM can be used. However, due to the high price, only a few companies have such instruments.
Since all of these custom steel forgings used will be assembled into the machine, it is sometimes difficult to check certain dimensions to ensure that the product will be usable when received by the customer, and a gauge/accessory will be made to test for any assembly issues.

Mechanical Properties Inspection

For some special uses or applications, the product will have some mechanical property requirements (such as hardness, tensile strength, etc.). Depending on the required properties, we will perform heat treatment service after closed die forging. We also confirm the expected properties and perform mechanical tests to prove the quality of the steel forgings. The following are some common mechanical property checks.

  • Hardness test when steel forgings have hardness requirements. Hardness will be tested by Brinell or Rockwell hardness tester.
  • Tensile test – A destructive test procedure that provides the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and compression area ratio of the product.

Defect inspection

Although steel forgings are much stronger than steel forgings, they may also have defects, which we can classify as surface defects and internal defects.
For surface defects such as trim, cold seal, dent, ECT, etc., they are mainly detected by 100% visual inspection or MPI (magnetic particle inspection). However, MPI is costly and this is done when requested by the customer, who will, of course, be responsible for the cost.
Internal inspection is required for safety and strength reasons, especially when steel forgings are used. The internal inspection of steel forgings includes:

  • Non-destructive testing (NDT): X-ray, ultrasonic testing, etc. This is the most direct way to detect internal defects in products.
  • Segmental testing: Another direct way to check the product for internal defects is to perform segmental testing and visually inspect the defects. In this way, the product is broken and can no longer be used.

Since all of these custom steel forgings used will be assembled into the machine, it is sometimes difficult to check certain dimensions to make sure the product is ready for use when the customer receives it, and we will make a gauge/fitting to test for any assembly issues.

Applications of Forgings

Forgings are made for a huge variety of applications.
In the automotive industry, forging is used to make suspension components, such as idler arms and axles, and driveline components, such as connecting rods and transmission gears. Forgings are often used for pipe stems, valve bodies and flanges, sometimes made of copper alloys for increased corrosion resistance. Hand tools such as wrenches are often forged, as are many wire rope fittings such as sockets and screw shackles. Forgings are widely used in shipbuilding, aerospace components, agricultural machinery and off-road equipment. Electrical transmission parts such as pendant clamps and base covers use copper alloy forgings to improve weather resistance.
Forging steels used for axles, connecting rods, pins, etc. usually contain 0.30-0.40% carbon to improve formability. Heat treatment after forging gives the parts better mechanical properties than low carbon steels. In heavy crankshafts and high-strength gears, the carbon content is sometimes increased to 0.50% and other alloying elements are added to improve hardenability.

Types of forged products

Forged products including custom forgings, forged bars, forged blocks, forged discs, forged shaft, forged cylinders, forged tubes – in stainless steel, titanium, Inconel, aluminum and more.

Forged products include forged bars and complex forged shapes in quality steel, titanium, Inconel and aluminum. These products are manufactured with high technical equipment and strict quality control system. Forged bars can be produced according to ASTM standards or customer’s drawing or sample. The forging process is used for producing complex forged shapes like crankshafts, connecting rods or other automotive parts.


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CUSTOM Forgings

What are custom forgings?

Custom forgings are created by compressing metals into specific shapes using high-pressure machinery. The forgings we create are considered custom because we can produce precise shapes according to customer specifications.
During the forging process, the material’s grain structure is retained and refined. The resulting forgings are durable and can outperform components that are made through other processes.
Forged parts are used in a variety of applications, including industrial equipment, automotive parts, medical devices and more. Our products include:
Forged gears — Gears manufactured using a forging process have superior strength and durability compared to those made from machined or cast parts. We produce gears with diameters ranging from 2 inches up to 48 inches (50 mm to 1,219 mm). Most commonly used materials include carbon steel alloys such as 1020 carbon steel and alloy tool steels such as D2 tool steel (1.5 percent carbon). Forged gears can also be made from stainless steels like 17-4PH stainless steel (0.75 percent nickel) or duplex 2205 stainless steel (13 percent nickel).

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Forged Bars

What are forged bars?

Forged Bar is made from a billet of steel. The billet is heated until it is malleable, then the bar is hammered or pressed into its final shape by a machine called a forge press.
The difference between hot rolled bar and forged bar is the way it’s processed from its raw state to the finished product.
Forged Bars are stronger than hot rolled bars because they have been hammered into their final shape and size, giving them more surface area than hot rolled bars. This also helps reduce warping and cracking during the heating process.
Forged bars are also more expensive than hot rolled bars because of their superior quality and strength, but they are an excellent choice for high-performance applications that require extra strength and durability such as heavy-duty equipment like tractors and other agricultural vehicles.

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Forged Blocks

What are forged blocks?

Forged blocks are created through a manufacturing method that utilizes localized compressive force shaping processes. The forging process begins when forged steel blocks are compressed within a die and custom shaped to exact project specifications.
This manufacturing process is used primarily for its ability to produce strong, dense and durable materials with high tensile strength and high elasticity. The end product of this process is often called forgings or die forgings.
Forged blocks are constructed by taking a blank block of steel, which has been heated and softened, and hammering it into shape using a series of dies that have been designed specifically for this purpose. The hammering process produces an extremely strong block of material with a uniform density throughout the entire block. Forging creates an extremely strong material that can be used in many different industries such as construction, agriculture, transportation and more!
When a customer orders a forged block from a manufacturer, they will typically specify exactly what kind of metal they want and how large the finished item should be. They might also request additional features like holes or grooves that will help them use their new product more efficiently. It’s important for manufacturers to take these specifications into account when creating their products because they want to make sure that everything fits together perfectly when their customers receive their order.
The forging process begins when forged steel blocks are compressed within a die and custom shaped to exact project specifications. Forging is a manufacturing method that utilizes localized compressive force shaping processes. Forged steel blocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures during the forging process, which results in increased strength and durability.
Forged Blocks vs. Cast Blocks
While cast blocks have been around for years, forged steel blocks are becoming increasingly popular for their superior strength, durability, and appearance. Cast blocks are typically produced using sand molds that require multiple steps and complex machinery to create the desired shape. Forged steel blocks can be created with just one pressurized step, resulting in a stronger product that requires less material than cast blocks do when manufactured with conventional means.
Forged Steel Blocks vs. Extruded Steel Blocks
Forged steel blocks offer many advantages over extruded steel blocks as well:
They can be bent into a variety of shapes without losing their integrity or strength through the bending process.
They have no grain direction like extruded shapes do. This makes them more resistant to cracking than extruded shapes can be in extreme temperatures or conditions (e.g., fireproofing).

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Forged Discs

What are forged discs?

Forged discs are a type of metal that is made by heating and pressing steel into a mold. The disc can be made from many different types of steel, but the most common type is carbon steel. Forging is done in a number of ways and it depends on the particular application for which the disc will be used.
Forging is one of the oldest methods used to make metal products. Forged discs are used for a variety of general industrial equipment and machinery used by the steel, power generation and power transmission industries. Forged discs are also used in valves, fittings, high pressure and oil field applications.
Forged discs have a number of advantages over other types of discs:
They can be made thicker than cast or rolled discs because they are formed from solid stock rather than poured molten metal. This means that forged discs can be made with very high structural strength ratings without increasing their weight significantly over cast or rolled versions of the same material grade and thickness.
The uniformity in size of forged parts is much greater than cast parts because there is no variation due to shrinkage during cooling as there is with casting processes.

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Forged Ring

What are forged rings?

Rolled ring forgings are metal parts that are created through a process referred to as ring rolling. These parts are often used in the manufacturing of machinery, but they can also be found in many other applications.
Ring rolling is a metalworking process that involves passing metal through rolls in order to flatten or stretch it. This process can be used to create flat sheets of metal and heated profiles, which can then be formed into complex shapes. The rolled ring forging process is also known as rotary forging or rotary rolling.
Rolling is an ancient metalworking technique that has been used for centuries. Modern industrial rolled rings can be made from many different elements including aluminum alloys, copper alloys, nickel-based alloys, steel alloys and titanium alloys.
Rolled rings are commonly used in machinery because they offer high strength at low cost compared to other types of forged discs such as solid discs that require more costly machining processes than rolled rings do. They also offer good fatigue resistance and long service life at low temperatures due to their high ductility and toughness properties.

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Forged Shaft

What are forged shaft?

Forged steel shafts are created through a manufacturing process that involves the shaping of the shaft Forgings using localized compressive forces. The forging process is initiated when a piece of steel is struck repeatedly with a hammer or squeezed with a press.
The process of compression causes the metal to become work hardened, which means it has been made stronger through deformation. This process also causes cracks to form within the material, which can be repaired by filling them with molten metal.
Forging produces parts that are lighter and often more durable than those produced by casting or machining. Because of this, forged shafts are commonly used in high-end golf clubs and other sporting equipment where weight reduction is important.
Forged steel shafts are also used in other industries such as aerospace because they’re strong enough to withstand high amounts of stress while remaining lightweight.

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Forged Cylinders

What are forged cylinders?

Forged cylinders are the most common type of cylinder used in vehicles and industrial applications. A forged (cast) cylinder is made using a mold, but the forging process uses no molds. Instead, a blank piece of metal is compressed and shaped by a machine called a press to produce a cast-iron cylinder.
Forging is the process of shaping metal with force to make it stronger and more durable than it would be if it were cast or machined. The forging process involves heating the metal until it becomes malleable (soft enough to alter its shape). Then, the piece is placed in a die that has the desired shape and compressed under extreme pressure. The force applied to the metal during this process will cause it to take on the shape of the die cavity.
The main advantage of forged cylinders over cast cylinders is that they have greater strength and durability than machined parts because they are made from solid blocks of metal rather than from individual pieces welded together as they are in cast iron or steel blocks. This makes them stronger because there are no weak spots where welds might break off or cracks could form as in cast iron or steel blocks.

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Forged Tubes

What are forged tubes?

Forged tubes are similar to seamless tubes in that they are formed by pushing a hot metal blank into a mold. However, they differ in that they are not made from one continuous piece of metal. Instead, they are made from several pieces that are welded together.
Forging is the process of creating a shape by compressing or squeezing a material between opposing forces. This can be done with simple machines such as levers and hammers, but it is more commonly done using specialized machines called presses that apply several tons of force at once.
In addition to being stronger than seamless tubes, forged tubes have certain advantages over other types of steel construction:
They can be made thinner than seamless tubing without compromising strength or durability
They tend to have lower weight per unit volume than solid round bars or square bars
Forged tubes are often used in high-pressure situations where there is significant risk of failure due to cracking or corrosion.
Forged tubes are often used in high-pressure situations where there is significant risk of failure due to cracking or corrosion. They are also used for high-temperature applications and for situations where great strength is needed. Forged tubes can be made of many different materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel and titanium.
Forged tubes are forged under extreme pressure within a die that has been heated to a high temperature to soften the metal. The process of forging the tube causes it to become stronger and more durable than an extruded tube of the same material. This is because the molecular structure of the material changes during this process, which makes it more resistant to breaking and cracking. Forged tubes are typically used when strength is important in addition to flexibility, such as in automobiles or aircraft engines.

Forged flanges
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Forged Lap Joint Flange

What are forged lap joint flanges?

Lap Joint Flanges slide directly over a pipe and are used with Stub Ends. Typically, a pipe is welded to the Stub End leaving the Lap Joint Flange to rotate freely around the stub end, simplifying bolt hole alignment.
Lap Joint flanges are commonly used in piping systems where high pressure or vacuum is applied. They are also used in industrial applications such as oil refineries and chemical plants where they are exposed to high temperature and pressure.
The flange has two parts: An inner ring that fits into the pipe and an outer ring that attaches to other piping components. The two rings are held together by bolts or screws which may be threaded through holes in either one or both of the rings.

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Forged Plate Flange / Flat Flange

What are forged plate flanges?

A forged plate flange is a flat, circular disc welded to a pipe’s end enabling the flange to be bolted to another pipe. It is often referred to as flat flange, plain flange and flange slip, etc. Two plate flanges can be bolted together with a gasket in between them, usually used in fuel and water pipelines.
The surface of the plate is smooth and very flat with no holes or slots for bolts or screws. This design prevents leakage by eliminating any gaps between the joint face and mating surface.
Forged plate flanges are made from carbon steel, alloy steel or stainless steel materials. They are used in a variety of industries including oil refining and petrochemical processing plants, power generation plants, ship building yards and chemical processing facilities.

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Forged Wind Power Flange

What are forged wind power flanges?

Forged wind power flanges are ring-shaped connectors that are used to assemble the bodies of the steel towers supporting the wind turbines. Tower flange is an important wind power component for tower connection which is installed with six or seven flanges in a wind turbine.
In addition, wind turbine tower flanges are used not only for connecting but also for connecting and supporting purposes in the construction of a large-scale wind power station.
The main parts of a tower flange include inner ring, outer ring, sealing plate and bolt holes. The inner ring mounts on the tower body and connects with other parts such as door hinges, bearing plate and so on. The outer ring is welded to the inner ring and provides support for vertical load transfer from the tower base to its upper part.
The sealing plate seals on both sides of the outer ring so as to prevent water or dust from entering into the tower body through bolt holes. It also prevents corrosion between steel surfaces through galvanized coatings or other protective materials bonded on both sides of the outer ring.

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Forged Weld Neck Flanges

What are forged weld neck flanges?

A forged welding neck flange (“WN”) features a long tapered hub that can be welded with a pipe. This flange type is used, normally, in high-pressure and high/low temperatures applications that require an unrestricted flow of the fluid conveyed by the piping system (the bore of the flange matches with the bore of the pipe).
The main features of a WN Flange:
Face to Face Dimensions: ANSI B16.5, ASME B16.47, MSS-SP-43 & BS4504.
Face to Face Thickness: ANSI B16.5 Class 150#, 300#, 600#, 900#; ASME B16.47 Class 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#; EN 1092-1 Class 150# & EN 1092-2 Class 150#; DIN Standard 150# & 350.

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Forged Threaded Flanges

What are forged threaded flanges?

Forged threaded flange is a type of flange that has taper pipe threads conforming to ASME B1.20.1 in its bore and can be used in piping systems.
Threaded flanges are mainly used for joining two pipes together or for connecting pipes to other components such as valves, pumps, etc., as per the requirements of the manufacturing process.
Flange is one of the most common types of joints used in piping systems. It is generally used to connect two pipes or tubes at an angle. However, there are many different types of flanges available on the market today and they all have their own unique features and characteristics.
The main purpose of a flange is to provide a secure connection between two pipes or tubes with different sizes, shapes, materials and diameters so that they can act as a single unit for safe transportation through pipelines or other means of transportation.

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Forged Socket Weld Flange

What are forged socket weld flange?

Forged socket weld flanges, also called welding flanges, are a type of flange that is used to connect two pieces of pipe together. Socket weld flanges are often used on smaller sizes of high pressure pipe and are attached to that pipe by inserting the pipe into the socket end and applying fillet weld around the top. This results in a smooth bore with excellent flow characteristics.
Socket weld flanges can be made from carbon steel or stainless steel. Carbon steel socket weld fittings come in three types: standard, low temperature and deep drawn. Standard socket weld fittings are used for low pressure applications where corrosion resistance is not needed or required. Low temperature socket weld fittings have a higher carbon content than standard socket weld fittings and are designed for use at temperatures up to 400° F (204° C). Deep drawn socket weld fittings are manufactured by drawing out the blank with a mandrel prior to welding; this process allows for greater thickness tolerances and improved dimensional stability than other types of socket weld fittings.
Socket weld flange sizes range from 1/2 inch to 12 inches in diameter with different materials available depending on your application requirements.

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Forged Slip On Flange

What are forged slip on flanges?

Forged slip-on flanges, SOF, are designed to slip over the outside of pipe, turnback KC, reducers and swages. They are available in both plain and weld neck styles. Slip-on flanges are often referred to as “sleeves” or “caps”.
Slip-on flanges are most commonly used in the process industry for connecting piping systems together in order to transport gases or liquids from one point to another. They can be made from carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron or ductile iron materials according to customer specifications.
The slip on flange is designed so that a pipe can be slipped over the outside of it and then tightened down with bolts through holes in the flange. This makes assembly easy because you don’t have to fit any couplings or other parts together before connecting pipes together.

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Forged Blind Flange

What are forged blind flanges?

A forged blind flange is a solid disk used to block off a pipeline or to create a stop. Similar to a regular flange, a blind flange has mounting holes around the perimeter and the gasket sealing rings are machined into the mating surface. The difference is that a blind flange has no opening for fluids to pass through.
Blind Flanges come in different configurations depending on their function. For example, some blind flanges have slotted holes that allow for passage of liquids while others are solid and have no slots for liquid flow.
Blind flanges can be constructed from carbon steel or stainless steel; depending on your application. Carbon steel has good corrosion resistance at low temperatures but is less resistant at high temperatures than stainless steel. Stainless steel, on the other hand, is more expensive but is resistant to most chemicals and has excellent corrosion resistance at high temperatures.
Blind flanges can also be made from other materials like aluminum or brass if they are being used in a corrosive environment such as oil or gas processing facilities where carbon steel may not hold up well over time due to its susceptibility to corrosion by certain chemicals like hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which forms when crude oil decomposes over time.

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Forged Long Weld Neck Flange

What are forged long weld neck flanges?

Forged long weld neck flanges are like weld neck flanges, except for the neck, which is extended and acts like a boring extension. Long weld neck flanges can be used in high pressure industrial applications, as well as high temperature situations. They are often utilized in the oil and gas or petrochemical industries.
Long Weld Neck Flange Advantages
Long weld neck flanges have some distinct advantages over their cousins, such as:
They have larger bore sizes than conventional weld neck flanges, which means they can handle more pressure before bursting.
They can handle higher temperatures than other types of flanges. This allows them to be used for extremely hot liquids or gases that would otherwise damage conventional materials due to extreme heat or pressure.

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Forged Orifice Flanges

What are Forged Orifice Flanges?

The forged orifice flanges are used with orifice meters for the purpose of measuring the flow rate of either liquids or gases in the respective pipeline. Orifice meters are commonly used to measure the flow rate and total volume of liquids, gases and steam.
The Forged Orifice Flange is designed to withstand high pressure, as well as high temperature conditions. This type of flange is manufactured from carbon steel or stainless steel material, depending on your specific requirements. The material used for manufacturing this type of flange is chosen based on the application requirement and end user’s requirement which may vary from one industry to another industry.
The Forged Orifice Flange comes in various forms such as single hole, double hole and four hole. The flange is available in different sizes ranging from ½ inch to 2 inches according to your needs. It is also available in various sizes according to the diameter of pipe that it needs to be mounted on (i.e.: 1 inch diameter pipe will have a ½ inch sized flange). The main purpose of using this type of flange is to connect pipes together by applying pressure onto both sides simultaneously thus ensuring maximum strength during installation process.

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Forged Spectacle Flanges

What are Forged Spectacle Flanges?

Forged spectacle flanges are specialty flanges made of two metal discs attached in the middle by a small section of steel. The discs can be flat or curved and are designed to fit into a matching groove on your frame. The groove is usually found on the temples of your glasses, but can also be used in other areas such as the nosepiece.
The purpose of this component is to strengthen and reinforce your frames, which helps prevent them from breaking or bending when you put them on or take them off. It also adds a nice aesthetic touch to your glasses and helps provide a sturdy base for attaching other elements like hinges.
Forged spectacle flanges are made using a special type of metal forging process called hot drop forging, which involves heating up the metal until it’s malleable enough to be shaped with heavy presses (or drops). The result is an extremely strong part that can hold up to years of wear and tear without bending out of shape or breaking apart like some cheaper substitutes might do over time.

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Forged Loose Flange

What are Forged Loose Flanges?

A Loose Flange (Lap Joint flange) is a device which consist of two pieces , it looks like a weld neck flange together, and it is butt welded with the pipes, it also like a loose slip-on flange.
A Lap Joint Flange has one or more holes through its face to allow a pipe to be inserted into the gap between the two pieces of the flange.
It is used when there is no need for pressure or vacuum in the system and the pipes are not subjected to high loads.

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Forged Oval Flange (DIN)

What are Forged Oval Flanges?

The forged oval flange is a special shape of the flange, mainly used for valves and other special equipment parts. Oval flange are reliable, safe and convenient, with the advantages of compatibility and practicability.
There are many types of oval flanges in the market: such as straight oval flange, knuckle oval flange, and inclined oval flange. The straight oval plate is mainly applied to packing machines, and it has a large bearing capacity and a long life span. In addition to this type of plate, there are also other types such as knuckle plates (K-type), inclined plates (I-type), double angle plates (D-type), etc., which have different specifications according to their functions.

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Forged Tube Sheet

What are Forged Tube Sheets?

Tube sheets are used to support and isolate tubes in heat exchangers, boilers or to support filter elements.
Tube sheets are typically made from high-strength steel plate with holes drilled to accept the tubes or pipes in a accurate location and pattern relative to one another. The tube sheets are used to support and isolate tubes in heat exchangers and boilers or to support filter elements. Tubes are attached to the tube sheet by hydraulic pressure.
Tube sheets are available in a variety of shapes and sizes that can be customized for your application’s specific needs. Tube sheets come in standard diameters ranging from 4″ to 12″, but can be produced up to 36″ diameter. We also offer custom tube sheet fabrication services on any size sheet up to 48″ x 96″.

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CUSTOM Forged Flange

What are Custom Forged Flanges?

Custom forged flanges are used for specialty projects. For a custom ring flange, all we need is the OD, ID, thickness, bolt pattern, and grade of material.
Custom forged flanges are available in all materials and pressure ratings up to Class 3000. Custom flanges can be made from carbon steel, alloy steel or stainless steel materials. We have a large selection of standard flange sizes such as ANSI/ASME B16.5, B16.47 and NACE MR0175/ISO 15608 ring flanges ready for immediate shipment!
Forged Steel Flanges can be made with any combination of flat face or raised face flanges to meet your specifications. They can also be made with no center hole (blind), two holes (blind), four holes (blind) or six holes (blind). Blind flanges are ideal for applications where the piping system needs to be concealed from view inside machinery or other equipment. Our forged steel blind flanges are fabricated from carbon steel or stainless steel materials depending on your requirements. We also manufacture a variety of pressure ratings for customized applications ranging from 1500 PSI to 3000 PSI (10 bar).
Custom forged flanges are available with metric and inch bolt patterns as well.

We offer a wide range of forged products such as:
Bar stock – round bar (DIN 17100) up to 6000mm length; square bar (DIN 17102) up to 2400mm length; hexagonal bar (DIN 17103) up to 3000mm length; flat bar (DIN 17130) up to 3000mm length; rectangular tube (DIN 17135) up to 6000mm length; oval tube (DIN 17136) up to 2000mm length; pipe fittings and tubes – round pipes from Ø12mm to Ø300mm and oval tubes from Ø30mm.

Why Forgings are Considered Superior to Other Metalworking Processes?

Forgings are a popular metalworking process that can be used to make a wide range of products. Forgings are generally considered superior to other metalworking processes because they provide better strength and durability than other types of manufacturing methods.
For example, castings are made from molten metal poured into a mold. The castings may be solid or hollow but there is no way to control the exact composition of the final product. This may result in weak areas or seams where two parts join together.
Another problem with casting is that it is difficult to achieve uniform thickness throughout an object because there is no way to measure until after it has cooled down and solidified. A large amount of material must be removed from the inside or outside of the part so that it can be machined or drilled afterwards.
The best way to avoid these problems is by using forgings instead. Forgings are made from a solid piece of metal which has been shaped using powerful presses and other equipment such as forging hammers and forging dies. Forging hammers press against dies that have been shaped like a mold so that when force is applied in one direction, it will cause the metal to flow outwards into a shape desired by the forging manufacturer.

Why Custom Forgings are Better?

Custom Steel Forgings are a solution for your part needs when design, material and cost are all important factors.
Custom forgings offer a high degree of reliability and tolerance capabilities.
Custom steel forgings offer uniformity of composition and structure. With many metal forgings made from one “heat” of steel, steel forgings have minimum variation in machinability and mechanical properties.
Custom forged steel parts are stronger and more reliable than machined or cast parts due to the fact that the grain flow of the steel is altered, conforming to the part’s shape. Grain flow strengthening in steel forgings is analogous to the cross grain strength of wood.
Custom forgings make possible designs that accommodate high loads and stresses. Forgings are free from internal gas pockets, voids, or cooling defects that can cause unexpected fatigue or impact load failure. Custom Steel forgings are used when quality cannot be questioned.
Steel forging is the application of thermal and mechanical energy to steel bars, billets, and ingots to cause the material to change shape while in the solid state. This is a different process than casting, where metal is melted and poured into a mold in the liquid or molten state.

Forging defects

The general forging defects are:

  • Unfilled sections – This is a common defect where the metal has not been fully displaced by the punch. This can result in an open area on your part that may be unacceptable for use.
  • Cold shut – Cold shut is a crack that occurs at the end of the forging process. It occurs when the metal cools too quickly and does not have time to flow properly. This can also result in an open area on your part that may be unacceptable for use.
  • Scale pits – Scale pits are small indentations on the surface of your forged product that are caused by impurities present during forging or from oxidation after forging. These imperfections do not affect performance but do reduce appearance quality.
  • Die shift – The die shifts during the forging process and this produces an uneven cross section. This can be avoided by using a proper lubrication system.
  • Flakes – Flakes form on the surface of the forgings due to improper grain flow. This is caused by high temperatures and improper lubrication.
  • Improper grain flow – Improper grain flow may be due to low temperature, uneven pressure, or poor lubrication. In all these cases, the metal will not flow properly into the mold cavity.
  • Surface cracking – Surface cracking occurs when an unsupported surface is subjected to high impact loads from the dies or hammers that produce it. It also results from improper mold design or defective tooling materials such as hardened steel dies that have been allowed to wear out during their use.
  • Residual stresses – Residual stresses are built up when there is a difference between the temperature at which fusion takes place and that at which solidification occurs in a casting process such as lost wax casting or sand casting (which use hot metal).
  • Incomplete forging penetration – Incomplete forging penetration is a defect that occurs when the entire cross section of the tool does not enter the die. The result is a hole in the sheet metal that is smaller than desired and may be up to 1/16″ (1.6 mm) in diameter.

Forging defects can be caused by a number of factors including:

  • When properly set up, dies should be able to reach maximum depth within the die within one full stroke. Improperly set up dies allow too much space between the ram and anvils causing the ram to bottom out before reaching maximum depth within a die. This condition is most prevalent with longer tools such as punches, dies, etc., which must travel a greater distance within a die before reaching maximum depth relative to shorter tools such as chisels, shears and rolls which only travel half as far within a die before reaching maximum depth relative to longer tools.
  • Improperly set up dies can also cause excessive tool wear along with poor tool performance and premature tool failure. Improperly set up dies will cause excessive wear on both sides of your cutting edge due to improper force distribution throughout the cut. This excessive wear will result in premature failure of your cutting tool while increasing cycle time due to increased force requirements needed to achieve full depth within dies.

Risk factors of forging production

Forging production risk factors and the main causes:
In the forging production, easy to occur in the trauma accident, according to its cause can be divided into three kinds.
First, mechanical injuries – scrapes and bruises caused directly by machines, tools or workpieces.
Second, burns.
Third, electric shock injuries.
Second, from the point of view of safety and technical labor protection, the characteristics of the forging workshop are:

  • 1. Forging production is carried out in the state of scorching metal (such as mild steel forging temperature range between 1250 ~ 750 ℃), due to a large number of manual labor, the slightest carelessness may occur burns.
  • 2. The heating furnace and scorching ingots, billets and forgings in the forging shop constantly emit a lot of radiation heat (forgings at the end of forging, still have a fairly high temperature), workers are often subject to heat radiation.
  • 3. The forging workshop heating furnace in the combustion process generated by the smoke and dust into the air of the workshop, not only affect the health, but also reduce the visibility of the workshop (for the burning of solid fuel heating furnace, the situation is more serious), and therefore may also cause work-related accidents.
  • 4. The equipment used in forging production, such as air hammers, steam hammers, friction presses, etc., are issued when working with impact forces. Equipment under such impact loads, itself prone to sudden damage (such as the sudden breakage of the forging hammer piston rod), and cause serious injury accidents.
  • Presses (such as hydraulic presses, crank hot die forging presses, flat forging machines, precision presses) shear bed, etc., in the work, although the impact is smaller, but the sudden damage to the equipment and other circumstances also occur, the operator is often caught off guard, may also lead to work-related accidents.
  • 5. Forging equipment in the work of the force is very large, such as crank presses, tensile forging presses and water presses such as forging equipment, their working conditions are more smooth, but the force of its work parts is very large, such as China has manufactured and used 12,000t forging presses. It is the common 100 ~ 150t press, the force issued is already large enough. If the die is installed or operated slightly incorrectly, most of the force is not acting on the workpiece, but on the die, the tool or the parts of the equipment itself. In this way, some kind of installation and adjustment errors or improper operation of the tool may cause damage to the machine and other serious equipment or personal accidents.
  • 6. The tools and auxiliary tools of the forger, especially the hand forging and free forging tools, clamps, etc. have a wide range of names, and these tools are put together in the workplace. In the work, the tools are replaced very often, and storage is often disorganized, which is bound to increase the difficulty of checking these tools, when the forging needs to use a tool and often can not be quickly found, sometimes “make up” the use of similar tools, which often cause accidents at work.
  • 7. Because of the noise and vibration of the forging workshop equipment in operation, the workplace is noisy and unpleasant to the ear, affecting the human hearing and nervous system, distracting the attention, thus increasing the possibility of accidents.

Analysis of the causes of work accidents in forging workshop:

  • 1. The need to protect the area, equipment lack of protective devices and safety devices.
  • 2. The protective devices on the equipment are not perfect, or not used.
  • 3. The production equipment itself is defective or faulty.
  • 4. Damage to equipment or tools and inappropriate working conditions.
  • 5. The forging die and anvil are defective.
  • 6. Confusion in the organization and management of the workplace.
  • 7. Process operation methods and repair of auxiliary work is not done properly.
  • 8. Personal protective equipment such as protective glasses are faulty, work clothes and work shoes do not meet the working conditions.
  • 9. When several people work together on an operation, they do not coordinate with each other.
  • 10. Lack of technical education and safety knowledge, resulting in the use of incorrect procedures and methods.

Points to note

Forging process should pay attention to the place:

  • 1. The forging process includes: cutting the material to the required size, heating, forging, heat treatment, cleaning and inspection. In small manual forging, all of these operations are performed by several forgers overhand and underhand in a small place. Exposure to the same hazardous environment and occupational hazards; in large forges, the hazards vary with the job.
  • Working conditions Although working conditions vary depending on the form of forging, they have certain common features: moderately intense physical labor, dry and hot microclimate environment, noise and vibration generation, and air contaminated by fumes.
  • 2. Workers are exposed to both hot air and thermal radiation, resulting in heat accumulation in the body. heat plus metabolic heat can cause heat dissipation disorders and pathological changes. the amount of sweating for 8 hours of labor will vary with the small gas environment, physical exertion, and degree of thermal adaptability generally between 1.5 and 5 liters, or even higher. In smaller forging shops or far from heat sources, the Behar II heat stress index is usually 55 to 95; however, in large forging shops, the working point near the heating furnace or drop hammer machine may be as high as 150 to 190. susceptible to salt deficiency and heat cramps. During the cold season, exposure to changes in the microclimate environment may promote its adaptability to some extent, but rapid and too frequent changes may constitute a health hazard.

Atmospheric pollution: The air in the workplace may contain soot, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or also acrolein, the concentration of which depends on the type of heating furnace fuel and the impurities contained, as well as the combustion efficiency, airflow and ventilation conditions.
Noise and vibration: Type forging hammers necessarily produce low frequency noise and vibration, but may also have some high frequency components with sound pressure levels between 95 and 115 decibels. Exposure of staff to forging vibrations may cause temperamental and functional disorders that can reduce work capacity and affect safety.

Where to buy high quality forgings

To get high quality forgings, you need to know where to buy them.
There are several ways to get high quality forgings. It depends on what you are looking for and how much you are willing to spend.
The best way to get a quality forging is to buy it directly from the manufacturer. Most of the big name companies that make forgings will have them on their website for sale. If you can’t find what you need here, then go to their local distributor and see if they have it in stock. If not, then ask them where else they might be able to find it for you.

The forging process is more complex than the machining process. Because forging processes include many steps, it is easy for the manufacturer to make mistakes. The following are some tips for choosing a good forging manufacturer:

How to evaluate the quality of forgings?

To evaluate the quality of forgings, you can check it from the following aspects:
Checking the surface finish. The surface finish of forgings should be smooth, not rough, especially for forging parts with complex geometries.
Inspecting forging parts for cracks. If there are no obvious defects on forgings, you can use a magnifying glass to check if there are any small cracks on the surfaces or in the holes.
Checking the surface texture and color of forgings. Forging parts with different types of materials have different colors and textures. For example, aluminum alloys have a white color and relatively smooth texture; while steel has a gray color and coarse texture after forging processing.
Looking at whether there are any burrs or weld marks on forged components. These defects may affect the performance of parts after assembly into an end product.

How to choose the supplier of forgings?

In order to buy high quality forgings, we need to know where to buy them. There are different ways that can help us to find a good supplier of forgings.
1. Recommendation from friends or relatives
If you have a friend or relative who works in the field of forging industry, they can recommend their own suppliers. They will surely recommend those suppliers who have been providing good service and products for their customers.
2. Searching on the internet
If you have an internet connection at home, then this is the easiest way to search for the best supplier of forgings. You just need to type “forgings manufacturers” in your search engine and you will get plenty of results from which you can select one as per your requirement. However, before selecting any particular manufacturer make sure that he/she has a website where you can see their products and also read customer reviews about them.
3. Personal visit to the factory site
This is another way to find out whether the company manufactures good quality forgings or not. It is always better if you visit the company by yourself instead of taking someone else’s recommendation on face value because sometimes people may be misleading you by telling.
If you are looking for a quality source of forgings, you need to do your homework.

  • 1. The supplier’s track record and reputation should be considered as well.
  • 2. The supplier’s facilities should be inspected before making any purchase agreement.
  • 3. The quality of their products should be compared with those of other suppliers for reference purposes.
  • 4. It is recommended that you ask for samples from the suppliers before ordering high quality forgings from them.

Here are some things to consider:

  • 1. Is the supplier certified?
  • 2. Does the supplier offer a warranty?
  • 3. What guarantees does the supplier offer?
  • 4. How long has the supplier been in business?
  • 5. Does the supplier have experience working with similar materials and processes as yours?

What kind of forging manufacturers can we choose?

Forging manufacturers are divided into two categories:
The first category is the forging manufacturer that provides product design, mold making and production. This type of manufacturer has its own mold shop and can also provide customized designs and products.
The second category is the forging manufacturer that only provides the product design and mechanical processing of forging parts after receiving customer orders. There are many manufacturers who offer this kind of service, but it must be noted that not all manufacturers can provide good quality products.
If you want to buy high quality forgings, then we recommend buying from the first category of manufacturers because they have more experience than second-tier manufacturers. If you choose to buy from second-tier manufacturers, then make sure you understand their strengths and weaknesses so that your needs can be met as much as possible.

What should we pay attention to when buying forgings?

When you want to buy forgings, you should pay attention to a lot of aspects. First of all, you need to look at the material and size of the forgings. Secondly, you should choose a forging manufacturer with a good reputation. Thirdly, you need to choose a reliable forging supplier who can provide all kinds of forging products according to your requirements. In fact, these three factors are very important factors affecting the quality of forgings.
Secondly, when choosing a forging manufacturer with good reputation, we must pay attention to its certifications and experience in this industry. Thirdly, choosing a reliable forging supplier who can offer all kinds of forgings according to our requirements is also very important because different customers have different needs for their products.

Epower metalsis the premier supplier of steel forgings in China. We have six production lines to meet various production requirements with an annual capacity of 10,000 tons. With forging facilities ranging from 300 to 2500 tons in our forging plant, we can supply you with small or large steel forgings. In addition, we can offer the following value-added services.
With in-house tooling shop, forging shop and machining shop. We can provide in-house products that meet drawing specifications. No matter what type of product is required, we have the ability to meet all needs for any application. We also have extensive experience in delivering dollies from prints or samples only, compared to other steel forging companies.
Redesign Services – Sometimes the original design is too costly for additional machining operations, or doesn’t work very well. Contact our company and our engineering team can combine our extensive forging experience with our usage experience to help you redesign your part. To improve our customer service, our redesign services are always free of charge.
Converting casting to forging – defects often occur in the casting process. So if you want to convert a casting design into a forging, Epower metals will be your smart partner for this job. We will re-evaluate your current design and provide you with a new steel forging solution for approval.
Our company also offers castings – we also have our own foundry, so if you need castings, feel free to contact us as well. Of course, we can also help with sourcing other products, such as stampings, metal products, etc. This allows us to be a comprehensive service company.

If you are looking for high quality forgings, then you have landed on the right page. We are the leading manufacturers and suppliers of top quality forgings in India.
Our product range includes forged steel shafts, forged steel flanges, forged steel spindles, forged steel gears and many others.
The best thing about our products is that they are made from superior quality raw materials which ensures their durability at every step of production process. The other factors that contribute towards producing longer lasting products are our skilled workforce and state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities. Our professionals use the latest technology to manufacture these products at an affordable price range so that our customers can buy these at an affordable price.

Source: Network Arrangement – China Forgings Manufacturer:

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at [email protected]



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