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Standard category and standard name of forging equipment

Forging production is metal forming and pressing. Forging industry is an old and dynamic industry. Forging usually refers to forging, stamping and sheet metal fabrication.

20220625124912 27794 - Standard category and standard name of forging equipment

With the continuous development of international trade and international exchanges, forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing technology has made continuous progress, and there are many kinds of equipment in the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industry. Due to different regions, different manufacturers, different sources and different emphases, equipment names have many different names for the same equipment, and the same name expresses different equipment, which causes a lot of trouble for industry exchanges, government policy formulation and implementation.
For this reason, China Forging and pressing association has collected and defined the names of forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing equipment, which are hereby issued as follows.

Forging terms and definitions

1. Forging

Under the action of pressure equipment and tools (moulds), the processing method that causes local or total plastic deformation of billets or ingots to obtain parts (or blanks) with certain geometric dimensions and shapes and improve their performance is called forging.
It can be understood that forging is a processing method of forming metal bars, wires or ingots under the action of force (energy) with or without heating. Common name: forging iron. Forging belongs to metal plastic forming, mostly volume forming, which refers to the use of hammer, anvil or die on the forging equipment to exert force on the metal blank to produce plastic deformation. According to the size and shape of forgings, die structure and forging equipment, forging is divided into free forging and die forging. The products processed by forging are called free forging and die forging.
Free forging is a forging method that uses simple and universal tools, or directly applies external force to the blank between the upper and lower anvils of the forging equipment to deform the blank, so as to obtain the required forging geometry and internal quality. Die forging is a forging method to obtain forgings by deforming the blank with a die.
Large forgings are relative concepts, including large die forgings, large free forgings, large ring pieces and large-diameter thick wall seamless pipe fittings. Free forgings produced by free forging hydraulic press above 8MN or free forging hammer above 30KN are called large free forgings. Die forgings produced with a die forging press of more than 60Mn, a die forging hydraulic press of more than 80MN or a die forging hammer of more than 100kN are large die forgings. Large forgings are mainly used in electric power, metallurgy, petrochemicals, ships, rolling stock, molds, aerospace, weapons, heavy machinery, automobile, mining machinery, general machinery and other industries.
Extrusion and rotary forming of metal belong to special plastic forming, which is also listed as forging production process at home and abroad, and the products produced are also called forgings.
Metal rotary forming is a plastic processing method in which only the metal blank is rotated or only the tool is rotated or both are rotated to deform the metal blank, including longitudinal rolling, cross rolling, rotary rolling, ring rolling, cross wedge rolling, roll bending (or bending), roll forging, spinning, etc. Inner diameter of formed ring Φ Large rings above 500mm; Inner diameter of extruded pipe fittings Φ Large diameter thick wall pipe fittings with wall thickness of more than 300mm and more than 30mm.

2. Stamping

Under the action of pressure equipment and tools (dies), the metal sheet is plastically deformed or separated to obtain a certain geometric size and shape of stamping parts, which is called stamping.
From the perspective of process deformation, stamping can be divided into two categories: separation process and forming process. The separation process includes: cutting, blanking, punching, trimming, sectioning, precision blanking, etc. The forming processes include bending (bending, roll bending, roll bending, stretch bending, etc.), deep drawing, bulging, flanging, expanding, necking, sizing, spinning, etc. The currently developed separation forming compound process is also a category of stamping.
Sheet metal stamping mainly consists of the following processes:

  • Separation process (blanking process): one part of a blank or part is separated from another part. Including cutting, blanking, trimming, punching, cutting, etc.
  • Forming process: blank or part changes shape. Including bending, deep drawing, flanging, curling, twisting, bulging, necking, undulating forming, shaping, etc.
  • Composite process: this type of process includes two or more processes in blanking and forming. It is mainly realized by compound die or continuous (progressive) die.
  • Assembly process: several single stamping parts are assembled together with a die, such as door pressing, car front and rear cover pressing, etc. all belong to the assembly process realized by stamping.

3. Sheet metal fabrication

Generally, it refers to the process that metal plates, pipes and profiles are deformed or separated under the action of hands and tools (moulds) or equipment and moulds, and become parts or structural parts according to the expected requirements, which is called sheet metal manufacturing.
Sheet metal fabrication is a comprehensive cold forming process. Sheet metal includes cutting, blanking, cutting, punching / cutting compound, bending, welding, riveting, splicing, forming and other processes; Manufacturing refers to the process of cutting and bending profiles and pipes with equipment and molds, so as to obtain parts of a certain shape. Sheet metal is included in the category of hardware production in China’s traditional industrial system.

4. Forging equipment

The equipment or machinery used to complete the above process is called forging equipment. Forging equipment refers to the metal forming machinery excluding the metal cutting (grinding) machine tool in the second metal processing, namely the forging machinery. Forging equipment is forging machinery.

  • 1. “category” in this table refers to the identification of equipment functions and characteristics; Name is a common name used in industry for communication and ordering.
  • 2. the “numerical control or program control” indicated in this table actually means that this type of equipment only has this form, and there is no non numerical control or program control model.
  • 3. for equipment not marked with “numerical control or program control” in this standard, if it is numerical control or program control equipment, it can be added before the name.
  • 4. this table does not define the name of the composite model. The so-called composite model is the forging equipment that combines two or more machines with two or more functions on one machine.
  • 5. due to incomplete information, there may be equipment or equipment name not listed in this table. At the same time, due to the limited knowledge of the editing staff, the simple explanation of some equipment is not necessarily accurate or fallacious. I hope the readers and users can understand, criticize and correct it.
  • 6. with the development of industry, this table is not static and needs to be constantly revised and adjusted.

Source: China Flange Forgings Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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