China piping solution supplier: www.epowermetals.com

Surface forming technology of various materials

The following is a complete list of 14 technologies for surface treatment processes to see what methods you have learned:

Vacuum plating

Vacuum metallizing: a physical deposition phenomenon. That is, argon is injected under vacuum, argon strikes the target, the target is separated into molecules, which are adsorbed by conductive goods to form a uniform and smooth metal like surface layer.

20211112151921 82670 - Surface forming technology of various materials

  • Typical products: reflective coating, surface treatment of consumer electronics and heat insulation panels.
  • Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
  • Quality: high quality, highlight and product surface protective layer.
  • Speed: medium production speed, 6 hours / cycle (including painting).

20211112151922 36372 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials

  • 1. Many materials can be vacuum electroplated, including metals, soft and hard plastics, composites, ceramics and glass. The most common surface treatment for electroplating is aluminum, followed by silver and copper.
  • 2. Natural materials are not suitable for vacuum electroplating because the moisture of natural materials will affect the vacuum environment.

Process cost

Vacuum electroplating is very dependent on manual operation. In the process of vacuum electroplating, the workpiece needs spraying, loading, unloading and re spraying, so the labor cost is quite high, but it also depends on the complexity and quantity of workpiece.

Environmental effect

Vacuum electroplating has little environmental pollution, which is similar to the impact of spraying on the environment.
Example display

20211112151922 35634 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Vacuum electroplating of Ducati motorcycle

20211112151923 83669 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Vacuum plating of perfume bottles

20211112151923 65548 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Vacuum plating of other products

Electrolytic polishing

Electrolytic polishing: take the polished workpiece as the anode and insoluble metal as the cathode, immerse the two poles into the electrolytic cell at the same time, and produce selective anodic dissolution through DC ionization reaction, so as to achieve the effect of removing fine burrs and increasing brightness on the workpiece surface.

20211112151924 98108 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: building structure, food handling, storage and medical pharmacy.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: the surface is bright, smooth and sanitary.
Speed: medium production speed, 5-30 minutes / cycle.
Applicable materials

  • 1. Most metals can be electropolished, and the most commonly used surface polishing is for stainless steel (especially for Austenitic nuclear grade stainless steel).
  • 2. Different materials cannot be electropolished at the same time, or even placed in the same electrolytic solvent.

20211112151925 99836 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost
The whole process of electrolytic polishing is basically completed by automation, so the labor cost is very low.
Environmental effect
Electrolytic polishing uses less harmful chemicals. The whole process requires a small amount of water and is simple to operate. In addition, it can prolong the properties of stainless steel and delay the corrosion of stainless steel.
Example display

20211112151925 79931 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Electrolytic polishing and cleaning of welding joints

20211112151926 55970 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151926 92087 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151927 38951 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Electrolytic polishing of other products

Photoetching surface treatment

Photo etching surface treatment: referred to as photolithography for short, it is a method of making a resist film image by photographic means to protect the surface. On metals and plastics, it is corroded with the help of chemical corrosives to produce surface texture.

20211112151927 45703 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: used for surface treatment of jewelry, nameplates and trophies.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: prolonged exposure and chemicals can achieve photoetching surface treatment.
Speed: medium production speed (50-100 microns / 5 minutes).

20211112151928 65783 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials

  • 1. Most metals are suitable for photoetching surface treatment. The most common are stainless steel, mild steel, aluminum, brass, nickel, tin, copper and silver. The light etching speed of aluminum is the fastest, while that of stainless steel is the slowest.
  • 2. Glass and ceramics are also suitable for photoetching surface treatment, but different photoresists and chemicals are required.

20211112151928 29154 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost

  • 1. Low mould cost.
  • 2. Medium labor cost.

Environmental effect
Metal scraps produced by photo etching shall be recycled under control; One third of the chemical used for photo etching is ferric chloride, and caustic soda will also be used to treat the waste photosensitive film. These two chemicals are harmful, so operators need to wear protective clothing during treatment.
Example display

20211112151929 48286 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Light etching of metal signs

Pad printing process

Pad printing: it can print words, graphics and images on the surface of irregular and special-shaped objects. Now it is becoming an important special printing.

20211112151929 40059 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: used for surface printing of vehicle interiors, electronic consumer products and sports equipment.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: can achieve clear printing details, even on uneven surfaces.
Speed: single printing time (1-5 seconds).
Applicable materials
Almost all materials can use pad printing process, except for materials softer than silica gel pad, such as PTFE.

20211112151930 57515 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost

  • 1. Low mould cost.
  • 2. Low labor cost, because most processes are completed by machining.

Environmental effect
Because this process is only limited to soluble ink (which contains harmful chemicals), it has a great impact on the environment.
Example display

20211112151930 57714 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Example of mobile phone silicone key pad printing

Galvanizing process

Galvanizing process: the surface treatment technology of plating a layer of zinc on the surface of iron and steel alloy materials to play the role of beauty and rust prevention. The zinc layer on the surface is an electrochemical protective layer, which can prevent metal corrosion. The main methods are hot-dip galvanizing and electro galvanizing.

20211112151930 55375 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: surface treatment of buildings, bridges, vehicles and furniture, etc.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: perfect protective layer. The appearance depends largely on the quality of steel.
Speed: fast, basic 10 minutes / cycle.

20211112151931 58723 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials
Since the galvanizing process depends on metallurgical bonding technology, it is only suitable for the surface treatment of steel and iron.
Process cost

  • 1. No mold cost, short cycle and low cost.
  • 2. The labor cost is medium, because the surface quality of the workpiece largely depends on the manual surface treatment before galvanizing.

20211112151932 88072 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Environmental effect
As the galvanizing process increases the service life of iron and steel parts by 40-100 years and prevents the rust and corruption of the workpiece, it plays a positive role in protecting the bad environment. In addition, after the service life of the galvanized workpiece expires, it can be returned to the galvanizing tank again, and the repeated utilization of liquid zinc will not produce chemical and physical waste.
Example display

20211112151932 11132 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Galvanizing process of wheel hub

20211112151933 81162 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Examples of galvanizing of other products

Electroplating process

Electroplating process: the process of attaching a layer of metal film to the surface of parts by electrolysis, so as to prevent metal oxidation, improve wear resistance, conductivity, reflection, corrosion resistance and beauty. The outer layer of many coins is also electroplated.

20211112151933 54736 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: surface treatment of vehicles, consumer electronics, furniture, jewelry and silverware, etc.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: high gloss, anti-oxidation and corrosion.
Speed: medium speed, depending on material type and coating thickness.

20211112151934 71101 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials

  • 1. Most metals can be electroplated, but different metals have different levels of purity and electroplating efficiency. The most common ones are: tin, chromium, nickel, silver, gold and rhodium (rhodium: a kind of platinum, which is extremely expensive and can maintain high brightness for a long time, and can resist most chemicals and acids. It is most commonly used for products requiring high surface gloss, such as trophies and medals).
  • 2. ABS is the most commonly used plastic for electroplating, because ABS can withstand the electroplating high temperature of 60 ° C (140 ° f) and has high bonding strength between Electrodeposited and non Electrodeposited coatings.
  • 3. Nickel metal cannot be used for electroplating products in contact with skin, because nickel is irritating and toxic to skin.

20211112151934 62879 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost

  • 1. There is no mold cost, but a fixture is required to fix the parts.
  • 2. Time cost depends on temperature and metal type.
  • 3. Labor cost (medium high) depends on the type of specific electroplated parts. For example, electroplating of silver and jewelry requires highly skilled workers because of its high requirements for appearance and durability.

20211112151935 74696 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Environmental effect
A large number of toxic substances will be used in the electroplating process, so professional diversion and extraction are required to ensure minimum environmental impact.
Example display

20211112151935 41375 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Electroplating process in domestic factories

20211112151936 20752 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151936 86703 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Electroplating examples of other products

Powder spraying

Powder coating: it is a dry spraying method. It is used on some metal workpieces through spraying or fluidized bed. The powder is adsorbed on the workpiece surface through static electricity. When it is completely dry, a protective film will be formed on the surface.

20211112151937 99971 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: spraying of vehicles, buildings and white household appliances, etc.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: smooth and uniform coloring of product surface.
Speed: the speed depends on the workpiece size and degree of automation, and it takes at least 30 minutes to dry.

20211112151937 77986 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials
Although it is suitable for surface spraying of some metal parts, plastics and glass, powder spraying is mainly used to protect or color aluminum and steel.
Process cost

  • 1. There is no mold cost, but the equipment cost is very high.
  • 2. The time cost is short, but the drying time needs at least half an hour.
  • 3. The labor cost is quite low.

20211112151938 77669 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Environmental effect
Compared with wet spraying, powder spraying has higher material utilization rate (due to electrostatic adsorption of powder particles), which can reach 95% of spraying material utilization rate.
Example display

20211112151938 36513 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Powder spraying of wheel hub

20211112151939 46067 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Powder spraying of other products

Water transfer printing

Hydro transfer printing: it is a way to use water pressure to print the color patterns on the transfer paper on the surface of three-dimensional products. With the improvement of people’s requirements for product packaging and surface decoration, water transfer printing is used more and more widely.

20211112151939 45514 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: vehicles, consumer electronics and military products.
Suitable output: small batch to large batch.
Quality: the surface texture of the product is accurate and clear, but there will be slight stretching.
Speed: high speed, 10-20 cycles / hour.

20211112151940 26159 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials
All hard materials are suitable for water transfer, and materials suitable for spraying must also be suitable for water transfer. The most common are injection molded parts and metal parts.

20211112151940 80820 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost

  • 1. There is no mold cost, but the fixture needs to be used to transfer multiple products at the same time, so as to reduce the time cost.
  • 2. The time cost is relatively short, generally no more than 10 minutes per cycle.

Environmental effect
Compared with product spraying, water transfer printing makes full use of printing coatings, reducing the possibility of waste leakage and material waste.
Example display

20211112151941 44502 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151941 41529 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Screen printing

Screen printing: through the extrusion of the scraper, the ink is transferred to the substrate through the mesh of the graphic part to form the same graphic as the original. Screen printing equipment is simple, easy to operate, simple printing and plate making, low cost and strong adaptability. Screen printing has a wide range of applications. Common printing materials include: color oil paintings, posters, business cards, binding covers, commodity signs, printing and dyeing textiles, etc.

20211112151941 40191 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: used for clothing, electronic products and packaging, etc.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: the quality and precision of pattern details are very high.
Speed: manual screen printing (1-5 cycles / min), machine screen printing (1-30 cycles / min).

20211112151942 23281 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Applicable materials
Almost all materials can be screen printed, including paper, plastic, metal, ceramics and glass.
Process cost
The mold cost is low, but it still depends on the number of colors, because each color has to be made separately.
Time cost: up to 30 screen prints per minute for machining and 1-5 for manual screen prints per minute.
Labor cost: in manual silk screen printing, the labor cost is high, especially when it comes to colorful printing.
Environmental effect
Light color silk screen printing inks have little impact on the environment. However, inks containing PVC and formaldehyde have harmful chemicals, which need to be recycled and treated in time to prevent water pollution.
Example display

20211112151942 10354 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Anodic oxidation 

Anodic oxidation: it is mainly the anodic oxidation of aluminum. It uses the electrochemical principle to generate a layer of Al2O3 (aluminum oxide) film on the surface of aluminum and aluminum alloy. This oxide film has special characteristics such as protection, decoration, insulation and wear resistance.

20211112151943 93148 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: mobile phones, computers and other electronic products, mechanical parts, aircraft and automobile parts, precision instruments and radio equipment, daily necessities and architectural decoration.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: the oxide film has special characteristics such as protection, decoration, insulation and wear resistance.
Speed: tens of minutes.
Applicable materials
Aluminum, aluminum alloy and other aluminum products.

20211112151943 42535 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost
In the production process of anodic oxidation, the consumption of water and electricity is quite large, especially in the oxidation process. Coupled with the heat consumption of the machine itself, it is necessary to keep cooling with circulating water. The power consumption per ton is often about 1000 degrees. The reduction of auxiliary facilities can reduce some power consumption.
Environmental effect
Anodic oxidation is not excellent in energy efficiency. In aluminum electrolysis production, the anodic effect will also produce gases that cause destructive side effects on the atmospheric ozone layer.
Example display

20211112151944 66122 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Lens made by anodizing process

Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis: under the action of electric field, charged particles move towards their typical opposite electrode, which is called electrophoresis.

20211112151944 41939 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: automobiles, building materials, hardware, household appliances, etc.
Output suitable for: mass production.
Quality: the product presents various colors, maintains metallic luster, enhances surface performance and has good anti-corrosion performance.
Speed: faster production speed.
Applicable materials
Stainless steel, aluminum alloy, etc.

20211112151945 85455 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Process cost
It can realize mechanized and automatic continuous operation, with low labor cost and low total cost.
Environmental effect
Electrophoretic coating uses water as solvent, which is non combustible, non-toxic, saves a lot of organic solvents, greatly reduces air pollution and environmental hazards, and avoids the hidden danger of fire.
Example display

20211112151945 81713 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151946 21314 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Micro arc oxidation (MAO)

Micro arc oxidation (MAO): also known as micro plasma oxidation, is the growth of ceramic films dominated by matrix metal oxides on the surfaces of aluminum, magnesium, titanium and their alloys by the action of instantaneous high temperature and high pressure generated by arc discharge through the combination of electrolyte and corresponding electrical parameters.

20211112151946 31015 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: aerospace field, it products.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: the material has high surface hardness and good wear resistance.
Speed: faster speed.
Applicable materials
Al, Ti, Zn, Zr, Mg, Nb, and their alloys, etc.
Process cost
Micro arc oxidation has high arc starting voltage, high current density, low current efficiency, high energy consumption and high treatment cost, which limits the wide application of this technology.
Environmental effect
Micro arc oxidation electrolyte does not contain toxic substances and heavy metal elements. The electrolyte has strong anti pollution ability and high regeneration and reuse rate, so it has little environmental pollution.
Example display

20211112151947 53270 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151947 61536 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Metal wire-drawing

Metal wire drawing: it is a surface treatment method to form lines on the surface of workpieces by grinding products and play a decorative effect. According to the different lines after wire drawing, it can be divided into straight line wire drawing, random line wire drawing, ripple and spiral line.

20211112151947 78625 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: construction industry, such as elevator door panel, faucet, handle, etc., and kitchen utensils, such as range hood, sink, etc.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: wire drawing treatment can make the metal surface obtain non mirror like metal luster, and wire drawing treatment can also eliminate subtle defects on the metal surface.
Speed: faster.
Applicable materials
Metal wire drawing process can be used for almost all materials.
Process cost
The process method is simple, the equipment is simple, the material consumption is little, the cost is relatively low and the economic benefit is high.
Environmental effect
Pure metal products, no paint and any chemical substances on the surface, no combustion at 600 ℃, no toxic gas, compound fire protection and environmental protection requirements.
Example display

20211112151948 63068 - Surface forming technology of various materials

In mold decoration

In mold decoration IMD: it is a forming method that puts the printed pattern diaphragm into the metal mold, injects the resin for forming into the metal mold and joins it with the diaphragm, so that the printed pattern diaphragm and the resin form a whole and solidify into a finished product.

20211112151948 21085 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Typical products: decoration and function control panel of household appliances, automobile instrument panel, air conditioning panel, mobile phone shell / lens, washing machine, refrigerator, etc.
Suitable output: single piece to large batch.
Quality: it can be used for complex images, friction resistant products, can prevent surface scratching, and can keep the color bright for a long time.
Speed: fast.
Applicable materials
Plastic surface.
Process cost
Only one set of mold can reduce the system cost and inventory cost, and reduce the cost and working hours
High automatic production, simplified process, one-time injection molding method, which can achieve molding and decoration at the same time, reduce constant cost and working hours, and stabilize production.
Environmental effect
The technology is green and environmental protection, and avoids the pollution caused by the traditional painting and electroplating.
Example display

20211112151949 23262 - Surface forming technology of various materials

20211112151949 63644 - Surface forming technology of various materials

Mobile phone protective cover with in mold injection molding
The above is a complete introduction to the surface forming technology of various materials. When it comes to the surface treatment of fixtures, because most of them are metal parts, the above methods are commonly used in electroplating, electrophoresis, anodizing and sand blasting of metal parts, and special treatment methods such as blackening and phosphating will also be used.

Source: Network Arrangement – China Metal Flanges Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.epowermetals.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@epowermetals.com

Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

PREV
NEXT

RELATED POSTS

Leave a Reply

*

*

Inquery now

SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER

FOLLOW US

YouTube
العربية简体中文繁體中文NederlandsEnglishFrançaisDeutschItaliano日本語한국어LatinPortuguêsРусскийEspañolTürkçe
  • Email me
    Mail to us