Water Supply System: Technical Features And Communication Types
The design of an integral part of any building, which includes not only spatial planning, but also the installation of communication systems. Whether it is private residential or municipal real estate, the installation of water supply system is considered as a necessary condition for building operation. These systems are placed inside and outside the building according to established rules.
General design and purpose
Table of Contents
Water supply and sewage treatment is a single system that combines a series of activities aimed at supplying and draining water to buildings. Due to the complex engineering equipment and structure, water is supplied to consumers from natural sources through pretreatment.
In order to ensure uninterrupted water supply, communication must provide storage. This provides water for various economic facilities and settlements. Therefore, the main tasks of the pipeline can include: taking water from the source,Carry out quality control according to user’s requirements and transport directly to the selection point. This is usually from a central supply system or from its own source.
The design of communication depends on the choice of water source. For large-scale and production facilities, centralized water sources are usually selected, while for local fences, special tanks are used. As for the hot water supply, it is usually installed in a closed intake, where it is heated and subsequently transported.
For residential buildings, the lower limit of + 60 ℃ and + 75 ℃ is specified in the hot water standard of water pipe.
According to the use of the building, the following types of water pipes can be distinguished:
- Economic drinks;
- Provide hot water.
Fire water pipes can be combined with other systems, including production and domestic drinking water. Drinking water cannot be used with facilities that simultaneously deliver water that does not meet the hygiene standards. In order to enable communication systems to complete their tasks, they provide the following facilities:
- A water intake station responsible for taking water from natural sources;
- Pump station, in the process of transportation to produce the required pressure, and to transport water to a given height;
- Improve water quality treatment and purification facilities;
- Water supply system and water supply system;
- Spare and regulating tank.
The modern water supply system is a complex network, and its main component is considered as the external pipeline. It is responsible for supplying water to users from wells, reservoirs or reservoirs. Central pipes can be laid on the surface or underground. The first is the fastest installation. In this case, the water pipe is mounted on an elevated support and covered with insulation. If a major intersection is provided in the design of the water supply pipeline, the pipe shall be laid in an underground tunnel or ditch.
The outdoor network usually consists of facilities responsible for water treatment, storage and various pumping equipment. In this case, filtration occurs not only in fences, but also in external piping systems. Depending on where the water is used, there are several types of outdoor water supply.
- Technology. It only applies to production facilities.Usually, in order to save cost, technical water pipes are only partially cleaned and the treated resources can be reused.
- Fire control. It is used in fire extinguishing systems. The network also provides special equipment and fire hydrants.Fire pipes are often dead ends, which allow it to be combined with home and technology supplies.
- Family. The water transported in the pipeline is used for drinking and thoroughly cleaned.
The water supply system also has an internal system consisting of a network of pipes that pass through the interior of the building and lead to the water intake point. Since the external piping may have different pressures, there are two ways to supply water internally.
There is no lift pump.In this case, the water supply is carried out through the pressure in the external network, and the water pipe includes the inlet, water meter, pipeline, riser and lead wire. This mode of supply is very suitable for private housing and urban apartments. It is characterized by simplicity and no equipment other than pipes.
There is periodic or permanent sediment. While this water delivery system is high enough to deliver water to remote points when not needed.Generally, water pipes with water pumps are installed in large buildings, hotels, holiday houses and production facilities over 50 meters.
In order to ensure the uninterrupted flow of water to users, in addition to the pump, the pipeline also has a special storage tank for storing water. The capacity of the tank depends on household needs and is usually 20% of the daily consumption.
The water tank is the main part of the internal water supply system, equipped with special pipes and valves. They are recommended to be placed in a well lit and well ventilated room.
If the project provides regional supply, then each section should have a separate trunk line, which is usually laid on the technical floor. Inside the building, the water pipe network opens with divorce. In some cases, hidden pipes installed on the walls of mines and ditches are also used. For this purpose, the connection shall be installed where the reinforcement is installed and the observation hole shall be fixed.
In addition, the internal system should be laid at a slope of 0.002-0.005, which will ensure that water is piped to the appropriate piping and equipment. If the communication is at a lower point, it is better to make a descent device.
In the process of internal water pipe installation, it is necessary to pay attention to and install the stop valve. It’s placed on the cushions of taps, toilets, sinks and washbasins.
In the installation of water pipes, it is important to pay attention to the selection of pipe materials, because this will not only affect the installation cost, but also affect the service life.In order to make the system reliable for decades, when purchasing pipes, it must be considered that they will be subject to the chemical effects of pressure and water. Therefore, it is recommended to select solid and reliable materials. At present, several types of pipelines can be found on the market.
This kind of pipeline is widely used in various engineering communications, including water supply. The main advantages of copper tube include:
- High pressure resistance;
- High temperature and low temperature;
- There is no deformation during heating;
- This material ensures the durability of the highway;
- Spectacular appearance.
As for the disadvantages, these systems:
- Installation of roads;
- Their installation is time-consuming and requires special brazing technology;
- If the copper system leaks during operation, the damaged part must be completely cut and replaced.
Copper water pipes are commonly used in distilled water because they combine with toxic elements.
Chlorinated water has an adverse effect on the physical properties of copper.Copper systems are also quickly destroyed by stray currents.
Metal plastic pipes
- It consists of a slender metal tube covered with plastic inside and outside.These pipes have many advantages:
- They are very small in diameter;
- Easy to maintain;
- Easy to install;
- It can withstand temperature change well.
But when choosing to install communications with plastic pipes, it is worth considering that they require regular maintenance and are expensive, They are afraid of impact and may collapse under ultraviolet light.
According to the different coating materials, the products are divided into galvanized and uncoated. The installation of this kind of water pipe is completed by special thread connection, coupling, tee or welding. The steel system has high rigidity, robustness and long service life. Although these deposits and deposits have positive characteristics in the pipeline. In addition, they are time-consuming to install.
This type of pipe is preferred and it is important to carefully seal the connection during installation. This can be done with linen pre impregnated with olive oil or paint. Do not use synthetic solution to machine thread. The advantages of galvanized pipe are low price, convenient installation and short service life.
They are good materials for building water pipes because they:
- No corrosion;
- The thermal conductivity is low;
- Light weight.
Plastic systems can be stacked in a hidden way. Piping is quick and easy to install, but cannot be used for hot water supply.
It is made of low pressure polyethylene, so it is durable and suitable for industrial and drinking water. Such pipes are popular in modern buildings because of their high elasticity and frost resistance. At low temperatures, they don’t break and can transport cold and hot water. In the system, the pipes are connected by welding or brazing, and the installation is easy because the polyethylene is well bent.
Polyvinyl chloride pipes
Unlike other types of materials, these products are highly rigid, so they are widely used for laying open and closed water supply pipes. The pipeline is not only suitable for hot and cold water transportation, but also suitable for heating system, with clean appearance and high strength. The pipes are cheap and connected by bonding and fittings. PVC has no obvious disadvantages.
Their technical characteristics are similar to those of polyethylene pipes in many aspects, but they are much cheaper and are connected by welding. In addition, the system is durable and meets all building standards and requirements, but attention should be paid to the welding quality during the docking process, Otherwise, leakage may occur.
Water treatment plant
Pipelines provide water to consumers from a variety of natural sources that may contain dissolved organic and mineral elements, Colloidal or suspended state. In order to ensure that the water quality meets all standards, a sewage treatment plant was also built when the pipelines were installed. The most common choice is small-scale water treatment with water flow. They are most common in urban water supply systems.
In this case, the purification system is as follows: water is supplied by the pump station and then flows into the purification tank by itself. Then, it is collected in the tank, processed and filtered, and the purified resource is taken away by the pump of the second station.
In addition, the buildings in residential areas can be constructed according to multi-stage and single-stage schemes. The choice depends on the quality of the water source. Therefore, the two-stage purification scheme not only provides clarification and disinfection for domestic and technical purposes, but also provides carbonization and condensation. Therefore, in a horizontal tank, the water is filtered by the flocculant and then must be chlorinated.
Cleaning facilities usually include:
- Clean the water tank;
- Filter system;
- Sedimentation tank;
- Flocculation chamber;
- Washing tower;
- Ash and coagulant repository;
- Consumable oil tank;
- Pumping station;
- A warehouse for storing activated carbon and sodium.
When water is purified through a single-stage system, sedimentation tanks are not used for filtration and clarification. Sometimes, the wastewater treatment plant is supplemented with fluoride removal and water softening devices. Such stations can usually be seen in drinking water pipes. As for the purification of groundwater, it will be transported for economic purposes, they are just disinfection. If groundwater contains a lot of hard components and iron, they will also soften and de iron.
To speed up the cleaning process, special additives are used to promote the adhesion of fine particles, which then settle to the bottom of the container and are eliminated by a vacuum filter. At the beginning and end of the system.
In addition to cleaning the water tank, sedimentation tanks are installed in the sewage treatment plant to remove water from large particles and discharge them for more thorough filtration.
Small water supply systems can also be installed with septic tanks and biogas digesters as biological purification.
Source: China Water Supply Systems Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.epowermetals.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at [email protected]