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Welding material: Choose the best welding material to ensure the welding quality

In modern manufacturing, welding is a crucial process widely used in construction, automotive, aerospace, and many other fields. The quality of welding directly affects the performance and reliability of the final product. To ensure excellent welding quality, it is very important to select appropriate welding materials. In this article, we will discuss how to choose the best welding material to ensure the success and durability of the welding work.

1. What is welding material?

The welding material is the filler or base material used in the welding process. They must have certain characteristics to ensure the strength and reliability of welding. Common welding materials include welding rods, wires, and fluxes.

Welding Rod

A molten electrode coated with a flux skin for arc welding is called a welding rod, or electrode for short.

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Composition of welding electrode

The welding electrode comprises the flux coating and the welding core.

  • (1) Cored. The welding electrode is a flux skin-covered metal core called a welding core. A welding core is generally a steel wire with a certain length and diameter. In welding, the core has two roles: one is to conduct the welding current and the arc to convert electrical energy into heat; two is the core itself melted filler metal and base metal fusion to form a weld.
  • Special steel wire for welding can be divided into carbon structural steel wire, alloy structural steel wire, and stainless steel wire, three categories.
  • (2) Flux skin. Pressure coated on the surface of the welding core coating is called flux skin. In the light of the electrode coated with a layer of various minerals and other components of the flux skin, the arc combustion stability weld quality is improved.
  • Flux skin to add some reducing agent so that the oxide reduction ensures the quality of the weld.

Due to the high arc temperature, some alloying elements contained in the weld metal are burned (oxidized or nitrided), reducing the weld’s mechanical properties. Adding iron alloy or pure alloying elements in the welding rod flux skin so that the melting of the flux skin and the transition to the weld metal make up for the loss of alloying elements and improve the mechanical properties of the weld metal material.
Improve the welding process performance so the arc has stable combustion, less spatter, weld forming good, easy to slag, and high deposition efficiency.
In short, the role of the flux skin is to ensure that the weld metal with the required chemical composition and mechanical properties and make the electrode has good welding process performance.

Classification of welding rod

(1) According to the use of welding rod points:

(2) According to the welding rod flux skin melted slag characteristics:
1) Acidic welding rod.
Generally used for welding mild steel and less important steel structures.
2) Alkaline welding rod.
Alkaline slag deoxygenation is more complete and can effectively eliminate sulfur in the weld metal. Alloying elements are less burned, so the mechanical properties of the weld metal and crack resistance are better. They can be used for alloy steel and important carbon steel structure welding.

Selection of welding rod

Usually, it should be based on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the composition of welded structural steel. Weldability and working environment (with or without corrosive media, high or low temperature) and other requirements, as well as the shape of the welded structure. Force and welding equipment (whether there is a DC welding machine) and other aspects of the comprehensive consideration to determine the choice of which electrodes.
In the selection of welding rods should pay attention to the following principles:

  • a. The principle of equal strength – refers to the choice of electrodes for the tensile strength of the molten metal and the tensile strength of the welded base metal is equal or similar.
  • b. Such as the principle of toughness – refers to the choice of electrodes deposited metal toughness and the toughness of the base metal to be welded equal or similar to the toughness of the base metal.
  • c. The principle of equal composition – refers to the chemical composition of the selected electrode deposit metal in line with or close to the base metal.

In the determination of the strength of the electrode and then deciding to choose acid or alkaline electrodes, mainly determined by the complexity of the specific shape of the welded structure, the size of the thickness of the steel, the weldment load (static or dynamic load) and the crack resistance of the steel as well as get the difficulty of the DC power supply, etc. Generally speaking, for plasticity, impact toughness, and crack resistance requirements of high performance, low-temperature conditions of the work of the weld should be selected for alkaline electrode when subject to certain conditions and cannot clean up the mild steel weldment bevel at the rust. Oil and oxidized skin and other dirt should be used on the rust, oil, and oxidized skin sensitivity and anti-porosity performance of strong acidic welding rods.
Welding of dissimilar steels such as low carbon steel and low alloy steel, different strength levels of low alloy steel welding, generally use welding rods that match the lower strength steel.

Storage of welding rods

  • 1) To avoid confusion, Welding rods must be categorized, sub-model sub-specification storage.
  • 2) Must be stored in a well-ventilated, dry warehouse. Welding electrodes used for important welding structures, especially low hydrogen type welding electrodes, are best stored in a special warehouse with a controlled indoor temperature of 5°C or more and a relative humidity of no more than 60%.
  • 3) Welding rods must be placed on a wooden shelf at a distance of 0.3m or more from the ground and the wall to prevent moisture deterioration.

Welding Wire

Welding as a filler metal or at the same time used to conduct electricity wire is called welding wire.

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Nowadays, with the progress of welding technology in the field of welding and constant mechanization, automation not only can get higher productivity and better welding quality but also greatly improve the production of labor conditions to achieve mechanization of welding; automation is the use of welding wire for the welding material.
Types of solid wires.

Classification of welding wire

a. According to the manufacturing method and the shape of the wire classification.
It can be divided into two categories: solid wire and flux-cored wire.
b. According to its applicable welding method classification.
It can be divided into submerged arc welding wire, gas welding wire, electroslag welding wire, surfacing wire, and gas welding wire.
c. According to the nature of the welded metal material classification.
Can be divided into carbon steel wire, low alloy steel wire, stainless steel wire, nickel-based alloy wire, cast iron wire, and special alloy wire.
d. According to whether copper-plated classification: copper-plated wire and no copper-plated wire.
Solid wire

The wire is directly drawn into the target diameter and becomes no flux powder wire is called solid wire.

Solid wire production process

First, raw material selection
Solid wire is the main raw material of steel wire, including carbon steel, low alloy steel, stainless steel, and so on. The production of solid wire needs to choose the appropriate chemical composition, low sulfur and low phosphorus, and other excellent raw material characteristics.
Second, surface treatment
In the production process, the surface of the raw material may have oxidized skin, rust, and other undesirable substances, which need to be cleaned and treated. Commonly used methods include acid washing, electrolytic polishing, mechanical grinding, etc.
Third, molding
Molding is the raw material through cold drawing, cold rolling, stamping, and other processing methods into a solid wire process; its purpose is to make the wire diameter, shape, size, etc., to meet the standard requirements.
Fourth, drawing
Drawing is the solid wire molded for further processing and refinement. The drawing can improve the surface roughness of the wire, the tensile and mechanical properties of the wire, and the diameter of the solid wire more compact.
Five, heat treatment
After the completion of the drawing, solid wire also needs heat treatment. Heat treatment can be heated, quenched, tempered, and other methods to improve the performance of solid wire and its ability to withstand the tensile force and bending strength.
Sixth, cooling: will pull out of the solid wire into the water and quickly cool to solidify its shape.
Seven, quality inspection.
Solid wire quality directly affects the welding effect, so it is necessary to carry out strict quality inspections. Common quality indicators include wire diameter, tensile strength, conductivity, etc.
In the quality inspection process, samples must be analyzed for chemical composition, tensile, bending, and other tests to ensure they meet the established standard requirements. At the same time, the unqualified quality of the welding wire will be dealt with or returned.
Eight, packaging
Finally, the welding wire has been produced for packaging to facilitate the process’s transportation, storage, and use to maintain dry, clean, and safe. Usually packaged in plastic reels, plastic drums, and other containers, and in the packaging process, pay attention to ensure that the solid wire’s surface is finished and flat.
Flux Cored Wire
Thin steel strips rolled into different cross-sectional shapes, filled with flux powder, drawn from a flux-cored wire. The filled powder is called flux core, and its effect is similar to the electrode flux skin.
According to the structure of the wire, flux-cored wire can be divided into seamless and seamless.
Seamless flux-cored wire can be copper-plated, has good performance, low cost, and has become the direction of future development.

The production process of flux-cored wire.

  • For the production of seamless flux-cored wire, commonly used “steel strip method”.
  • For the production of seamless flux-cored wire, commonly used “steel pipe method”.

Advantages and disadvantages of flux-cored wires (compared to solid wires).

Advantages: small spatter, fast deposition speed, high productivity; for a variety of steel welding, adaptability; good process performance, weld seam forming beautiful; the larger welding current can be used for all-position welding, the more the welding current can be used for all-position welding, the more the welding current can be used for all-position welding.
Available larger welding current for all-position welding.
Disadvantages: The wire manufacturing process is complex and high cost; wire appearance is easy to rust
Powder absorbs moisture easily; welding wire feeding is more difficult than solid wire and soot.


Flux is an indispensable welding material in the submerged arc welding process.

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When welding, it melts to form slag and gas, and a granular substance is called flux to protect the molten metal and metallurgical effect.


  • 1) Protect the molten metal.
  • 2) Supplement the alloying elements to the molten pool.

Classification of flux

  • (1) According to the use of classification, can be divided into submerged arc welding flux, electroslag welding flux, and surfacing flux;
  • (2) According to classification, it can be divided into submerged arc welding flux, electroslag welding flux, and surfacing flux.
  • (3) Classification by manufacturing method: can be divided into smelting and non-smelting flux.
  • (3) According to the alkalinity of the slag classification, it can be divided into acidic, neutral, and alkaline.

Common welding materials

Base material Welding wire Welding rod
National standard Foreign standards Model Grade
Common carbon steel
20#20GQ235 seriesQ245RL245N A105 AA106 B ER49-1 E4315 J427
ER50-6 E4316 J426
Q345R16MnRQ355 series A210 C ER50-6 E5015 J507
E5016 J506
20# ANTI-H2S / ER50-G E4315P J427SHA
20# HIC
Common pipeline steel
L245 level B ER50-6 E5015 J507
L290 level X42 E5016 J506
L320 level X46
L360 level X52
L415 level X60 ER50-6 E5515 J557
L450 level X65 E5518 J558
L485 level X70 ER55-D2-Ti E9016-G /
L555 level X80 ER55-Ni1 E10016-G /
Commonly used low alloy steel
12CrMo T2/P2/F2 ER55-B2 E5515-CM R207
15CrMo T12/P12/F12 ER55-B2 E5515-1CM R307
12Cr1Mo T11/P11/F11 ER55-B2 E5515-1CM R307
12Cr1MoV / ER55-B2-MnV E5515-1CMV R317
12Cr2Mo T22/P22/F22 ER62-B3 E6215-2C1M R407
Commonly used alloy steel
12Cr5Mo T5/P5/F5 ER55-B6 E5515-5CM R507
12Cr9Mo T9/P9/F9 ER55-B8 E5515-9C1M R707
10Cr9Mo1VNbN T91/P91/F91 ER62-B9 E6215-9C1M R717
/ T92/P92/F92 ER62-G E6215-G R727
Commonly used stainless steel
06Cr19Ni10 304 ER308 E308-15 A107
E308-16 A102
022Cr19Ni10 304L ER308L E308L-15 A007
E308L-16 A002
07Cr19Ni10 304H ER308H E308H-15 A107H
E308H-16 A102H
06Cr17Ni12Mo2 316 ER316 E316-15 A207
E316-16 A202
022Cr17Ni12Mo2 316L ER316L E316L-15 A027
E316L-16 A022
07Cr17Ni12Mo2 316H ER316H E316H-15 A207H
E316H-16 A202H
06Cr19Ni10Ti 321 ER321 E347-15 A137
ER347 E347-16 A132
06Cr19Ni10Nb 347 ER347 E347-15 A137
E347-16 A132
06Cr23Ni13 309 ER309 E309-15 A307
E309-16 A302
06Cr25Ni20 310 ER310 E310-15 A407
E310-16 A402

E321 series welding rods are not recommended for welding stainless steel 321 materials.
The table only lists commonly used welding materials and does not consider impact requirements. When there are impact requirements in the design documents, the low-temperature impact toughness value of the welding material shall not be lower than the standard value of the base material.
The welding materials for pressure vessels should meet the relevant requirements of NB/T 47018-2017 “Technical Conditions for Ordering Welding Materials for Pressure Equipment” according to the large capacity regulations.

Estimation of the amount of welding consumables used

The amount of welding consumables to be used is derived from the basic formula of mass = volume x density, which is given below:
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In the formula:

  • M: the amount of welding consumables, in g.
  • A: cross sectional area of the weld, in mm2
  • L: weld length, in mm
  • n: number of welds of the same type
  • 1.2: Welding seam height in 20%, the value is empirical, and can be adjusted appropriately.
  • ρ: density of molten metal. Carbon steel take 7.85×10-3g/mm3, Cr-Ni stainless steel take 7.9×10-3g/mm3, Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel take 8.0×10-3g/mm3, copper, nickel take 8.9×10-3g/mm3
  • η: deposition efficiency, refers to the transition to the weld metal quality and the use of welding consumables quality ratio. Commonly used electrode arc welding to take 0.55, argon arc welding to take 0.9, flux cored gas shielded welding welding to take 0.89, submerged arc welding, steel wire gas shielded welding to take 0.95.

To pay special attention to the relationship between deposition efficiency and deposition coefficient, the practical application is very easy to make a mistake.
Formula A value of the cross-sectional area of the weld is based on the form of weld beveling to determine, as shown in Figure 1. before calculating the need to determine the form of weld beveling, the appropriate form of beveling can be used to ensure the quality of welding at the same time, significantly reduce the welding workload, the content of this part will be described in detail in the subsequent chapters.
If the weld is a combination of welding methods (such as argon-electric joint welding) or composite steel plate weld (such as Q345R + S31603), only need to be welded according to the thickness of the separate calculation of each type of weld metal covered by the A-value, and then apply the formula for calculation.
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Weld bevel diagram
The estimation formula given in this time is to treat the weld as a uniform column and simply use the cross-sectional area × length to calculate its volume, but in practice this number is on the large side. Conditional readers, you can also use the integral or modeling way to calculate.
Example: the bevel in the figure form bevel size of Φ355.6 × 8 butt bevel, bevel angle of 60 °, gap of 3 mm, blunt edge 1 mm, material 20#, a total of 100 passes, the use of electrode arc welding for welding. Calculate the amount of welding consumables in kg:
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The above method can provide a rough estimate of the amount of welding consumables for clear weld seams of pressure pipelines and pressure vessels. For the estimation of welding consumptions of steel structure, it can be usually based on the empirical value, which is estimated by the tonnage of steel and different frame types and other distinguishing ways, with a large difference value, which can only play the role of reference.

How to choose the right welding materials?

Welding material is generally determined by the design provisions, construction acceptance standards, and specifications; welding process evaluation as the basis, such as the design is not specified, it should be based on the chemical composition of the base material, mechanical properties, welding performance, structural characteristics, conditions of use, welding methods and other comprehensive consideration.
Ⅰ. In the same type of steel welding, the choice of welding consumables should generally comply with the following principles:
(a) Consider the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the base material

  • ① Carbon steel, low alloy steel welding, choose the mechanical properties of the weld metal is higher than or equal to the lower limit of the corresponding base material standard welding rod or wire.
  • ② Other alloy steel welding, welding rod or wire selection of the main alloying elements of the weld metal composition and base material similar or identical to the welding rod or wire, the mechanical properties of the molten metal should not be less than the base material standard tensile strength of the lower limit.
  • ③ Steel in carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements of higher content, the welding rod selection of good crack resistance of low hydrogen type welding rod.

(b) Consider the working conditions and performance of the weldment

  • ① In the high-temperature or low-temperature conditions of work of the weldment, the main alloying elements of the weld metal should be used with the composition of the base metal or the same composition of heat-resistant steel rods, low-temperature steel rods, or corresponding wire.
  • ② Chrome molybdenum heat-resistant steel welding, due to site construction conditions, limits the difficulty of post-weld heat treatment, as agreed by the design unit or construction unit; you can choose austenitic or nickel-based material welding, welding without heat treatment. When the design temperature is not higher than 315 ° C, you can choose high chromium-nickel (25% Cr – 13% Ni) austenitic welding materials for welding; when the design temperature is higher than 315 ° C, can choose nickel-based welding materials for welding. P91 steel welding should pay attention to the content of Mn + Ni is less than or equal to 1.5%. Otherwise, the post-weld heat treatment temperature after calculating the ORNL (AC1 ≈ 848-42 (Mn% + Ni%) can not do heat treatment after welding. Ni%) can not exceed the allowable lower transformation temperature of the weld metal.
  • ③ Low-temperature steel welding: The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the molten metal should be similar to the base material, the low-temperature impact toughness value is not lower than the standard value of the base material, sulfur, phosphorus content should not be higher than the base material; electrode arc welding should be selected from low-hydrogen type flux electrode;
  • ④ Submerged arc welding should be used to match the wire flux; Ni-bearing low-temperature steel used in welding consumables should be similar to the amount of Ni or slightly higher than the base material; 9% Ni steel welding should be used for chromium-nickel austenitic or nickel-based electrodes.
  • ⑤ Welding parts in contact with corrosive media should use stainless steel welding rods or wires or other corrosion-resistant welding rods or wires.
  • ⑥ Bearing vibration load or shock load of the weldments should also be used to ensure the plasticity and toughness of the higher low-hydrogen type welding rod or wire.

Ⅱ. When welding dissimilar steel, the choice of welding consumables should generally comply with the following principles:

  • (a) Both sides of the steel are non-austenitic stainless steel, or austenitic stainless steel can be selected between the two components or with a low alloy content on the side of the matching welding consumables.
  • (b) One of the two sides of the austenitic stainless steel can choose 25% Cr-13% Ni type or higher nickel content of the welding consumables.
  • (c) Ferritic steel and austenitic steel consisting of dissimilar steel welded joints, when the design temperature is lower than or equal to 315 ℃, you can choose 25% Cr-13% Ni type welding consumables; when the design temperature is higher than 315 ℃, it is appropriate to use nickel-based welding consumables (Note: here NB/T47015 design temperature of 370 ℃).

Ⅲ. Composite steel welding, welding consumables selection should generally comply with the following principles:

  • (a) The complex layer of austenitic stainless steel welding materials should ensure that the content of the main alloying elements of the molten metal is not less than the lower limit value of the standard provisions of the complex material.
  • (b) For intergranular corrosion requirements of welded joints, should be used in the molten metal containing stabilizing elements Nb, Ti or ensure that the molten metal carbon content of less than or equal to 0.04% of the welding material.
  • (c) A complex layer of austenitic stainless steel electrode arc welding should stabilize the arc spatter less titanium calcium acid electrode.
  • (d) A complex layer of dissimilar austenitic stainless steel welding consumables should ensure that the molten metal in the Cr, Ni content is not less than the alloy content of the low side of the complex layer of material standards, the lower limit value.
  • (e) Compound layer for martensitic or ferritic stainless steel can choose the same metallurgical organization as the compound material welding material and austenitic welding material.
  • (f) Complex layer of austenitic and martensitic or ferritic dissimilarity of stainless steel welding consumables, the molten metal in the Cr, Ni content should not be lower than the lower limit value of austenitic side material standards.
  • (g) The base layer of welding material according to the relevant requirements of 5.3.2 selection.
  • (h) Over the stainless steel transition layer, welding material should be appropriate to choose 25Cr-13Ni or 25Cr-20Ni type to supplement the grass-roots level on the dilution of the composite layer; the composite layer of molybdenum-containing stainless steel composite steel should be used 25Cr-13Ni-Mo type welding rod.
  • (i) Welding should be first welded grass-roots level, after welding the transition layer and the compound layer, and welding the grass-roots level shall not deposit the grass-roots metal on the compound layer. When conditions are restricted, you can also weld the first layer and then weld the transition layer and the grass-roots level; in this case, the grass-roots level of welding should be used with the transition layer welding the same welding materials.

Ⅳ. Submerged arc automatic welding flux should be selected to match the base material and wire.
V. Boiler, pressure vessels, tanks with welding materials

  • (a) Welding consumables should meet the relevant requirements of NB/T47018-2017 “Ordering Technical Conditions for Welding Consumables for Pressurized Equipment” and meet the corresponding welding consumables standards.
  • (b) Welding consumables used for pressurized components should ensure that the mechanical properties of the weld metal are higher than or equal to the lower limit value specified in the base material. When required, other properties shall not be lower than the corresponding requirements of the base material.
  • (c) When choosing welding consumables of overseas grades, their technical requirements shall equal those of similar grades in the territory. They shall be verified and retested for their chemical composition and mechanical properties by the requirements of the “Safety Technical Supervision Regulations for Fixed Pressure Vessels” (TSG 21-2016). They shall be used once they meet the relevant requirements.

Ⅵ. For E ××××-G welding materials, in principle, the welding material should be required to select the welding process evaluation with the welding material manufacturers and the provisions of the weld metal Charpy V-notch impact absorption work.
Ⅶ. Chromium-molybdenum steel weld metal Cr, Mo content with the parent material provisions equivalent or in line with the technical requirements in the design documents.
Ⅷ. Low-temperature steel welding consumables should ensure that the weld metal’s mechanical properties are higher than or equal to the limits specified in the parent material or accordance with the technical requirements set out in the design documents.

Acceptance and storage of welding consumables

1. Acceptance of welding consumables
Check whether the packaging of welding consumables meets the standard requirements, whether it is intact, without damage, moisture and rain phenomenon;
Check the quality certificate of welding consumables; check whether the data provided in its quality certificate is complete and meets the specified requirements;
Check whether the outer surface of the welding consumables is contaminated, whether there are defects affecting the welding quality produced during storage and transportation, and identify whether the welding consumables marking is clear, firm, and whether it is compatible with the product in kind;
Acceptance of welding consumables should be specialized marking on each package;
2. Welding consumables into the warehouse, storage, labeling
The welding material storage room needs to be divided into “to be inspected”, “qualified”, and “unqualified,” and other areas in front of each storage area should be marked;
Acceptance of welding consumables should be registered in the warehouse, including:

  • ① Welding material name, model (or brand);
  • ② Welding material specifications, size (diameter);
  • ③ Batch, furnace lot number;
  • ④ Quantity or weight;
  • ⑤ Production date, storage time, manufacturer’s name;
  • ⑥ Effective date (welding consumables quality certificate or manual recommended period, acidic welding consumables and moisture-proof packaging and sealing of low-hydrogen welding consumables is valid for 5 years).

Welding consumables must be stored in a dry, ventilated, and tidy warehouse where no harmful gases and corrosive media shall be placed.
Welding consumables should be stored on the shelf; the height of the shelf from the ground and the distance from the wall shall not be less than 300mm and strictly prevent the welding rod from moisture.
Welding consumables should be stacked in the warehouse according to the type, grade, batch, specification, storage time, etc., to place.
There should be a thermometer and hygrometer in the welding consumables storage room; the temperature in the storage room of low-hydrogen welding rods or alkaline welding rods should not be lower than 5℃, and the relative humidity should be less than 60%; the custodian of welding consumables should record the temperature and humidity of the storage room of welding consumables every day at 9:30 and 16:00 respectively, and use the dehumidifier at appropriate time.
Welding consumables should be used first by the principle of first in storage; welding rod, flux out of storage cannot exceed the amount of the day, welding wire out of storage cannot exceed the amount of 2 days;
Special welding consumables should be stacked in special warehouses or designated areas, and the storage and custody of special welding rods should be higher than that of general alkaline welding consumables;
Welding consumables into the warehouse to establish the corresponding welding consumables inventory files, such as warehousing registration, quality certificates, acceptance inspection reports, inspection and issuance records;
3. Marking of welding consumables
Construction team welding material baking management personnel will be welding material from the first level of the welding material library led out into the second level of the welding material library (baking room). Should be timely on the welding wire for the corresponding color-coded marking to avoid confusion in the process of welding material transportation and welding construction materials, to ensure that the quality of the formation process of the project to achieve the traceability of the material to ensure that the quality of the welding of the project.
Welding rods, flux, and other welding materials in storage, according to the welding material brand specifications, with the hanging of the way to mark respectively, to avoid welding rods flux and other welding materials in the process of storage, baking, issuance of the phenomenon of material confusion occurs.
Welding wire with color marking, marking for one end of the wire for painting, marking the length of 15 – 20mm is appropriate to avoid confusion in the issuance and use of welding wire in the process of the phenomenon.

Baking of welding materials

  • Before the use of a welding rod should read the instruction manual for welding rod and execute its baking instructions;
  • The custodian of welding materials is responsible for the baking, storage, distribution, and recovery of welding materials;
  • Welding materials should be reasonably discharged during baking, which is conducive to uniform heating and moisture removal. When baking welding rods, attention should be paid to preventing the flux skin from cracking or falling off due to sudden cooling and heating of the rods;
  • The production of signage, written on the “baking” and other words, baking will be hung on the outside of the baking box;
  • In principle, different types of welding materials should be baked separately, but if the baking specification requirements are the same, different types of welding materials between the obvious marking are allowed to bake in the same furnace, baking a variety of welding materials according to the type and specifications of the separate arrangement, separate from each other;
  • When baking welding rods, welding rods should not be stacked in stacks or bundles, they should be laid into layers; each layer of welding rods cannot be stacked too thick to ensure that the welding material is uniformly heated and dry;
  • Welding materials that must be baked before welding are required to be baked again when used if they are left at room temperature for more than 4h after baking; however, for welding rods with a baking temperature of more than 350℃, the cumulative number of baking times is generally no more than 2 times;
  • The welding material manager should make detailed records of the baking, holding, issuing, and recycling of welding materials to achieve traceability of the use of welding materials.

Baking of welding rods

  • The custodian shall bake the welding rods after receiving the application card for welding rods used by the work team.
  • The baking of welding rods should be carried out separately according to the types of welding rods.
  • After baking, welding rods shall be promptly placed in a thermostatic oven and labeled for easy identification.
  • The welding rods put into the oven shall not have sundries such as broken flux skin, rust, oil, sand, etc.
  • The custodian should record the welding rod baking carefully and record the welding rod’s type, quantity, lot number, and baking times.
  • Shall not be cold welding rod suddenly loaded into the high-temperature box, and shall not be baked welding rod from the oven out of its rapid cooling. It should be with the baking box down to 150 ℃ and then transferred to the constant temperature box.
  • Welding rod baking temperature and cooling speed cannot be too rapid; the heating rate generally does not exceed 150 ℃/h, and cooling does not exceed 200 ℃/h.

Issuance and recovery of welding consumables

1. Issuance of welding consumables
The welding material baker should fill in the welding material issuance record when issuing materials; the record includes the date, welder’s name, welder’s number, welding material type, quantity, and issuance time;
All welding consumables to be issued shall be stored in a dry thermostatic oven according to model and category, respectively;
All baking boxes shall be labeled with the model and specifications of the welding material stored;
Damaged or unrecognizable welding consumables must be disposed of as scrap;
Before use, such as welding consumables instructions do not have special provisions, generally should be baked, alkaline low-hydrogen type welding consumables from the sealed package out should be immediately placed in the baking box at a temperature of 350 ℃ baking conditions for 1 hour;
After the welding rod is baked, it should slowly cool to 150℃. Subsequently, placed in a constant temperature box, take with the use of attention to keep the welding rod dry.
Requirements for welding rods: Welders must hold a good performance of the welding rod tube and welder’s license, and will have been used in the head of the welding rod to bring the exchange of welding rods each time the exchange of welding rods for several not more than 5kg, with the use of the collar, and in each heat preservation cylinder can only be loaded into a kind of welding consumables, the remaining after the return. Each time the welding material is used, the welder must show the welder’s license and sign on the record of use. If the head of the welding rod is not brought, it will not be collected.
The welding rods must be used up within 4 hours after receiving and can only be used after re-baking for more than 4 hours. The custodian should keep a detailed record of the issued and recovered welding materials, and the welding rods that have been baked more than 2 times are not allowed to be used for welding pressure vessels and pipelines.
The issuance and recycling procedure of welding wire is the same as that of welding rods; argon arc welding wire is not more than 60 per application and 20kg per application of two-protection welding wire;
2. Recycling of welding materials
Welders will return the remaining welding materials to the welding material custodian for unified storage and disposal after the welding operation is completed, and the recycled welding materials should be marked, neat, and free of pollution;
Any welding rods not used up by the welders in the morning or afternoon should be returned to the warehouse; welding rods should always be kept in the welding rod holding tank during welding rods. Once returned to the warehouse, the warehouse management personnel will mark the welding consumables using the color code, and the unused rods will be set up in a separate baking position when they are being baked to prevent any confusion. Any returned rods with more than 2 baking color codes will be discarded.
Any electrodes returned with more than 2 baking color codes will be discarded. Re-baked electrodes will be issued with priority and recorded;
All non-reusable or non-dryable welding rods should be stored in a special place; at the same time, set up an area for the recycling and storing of welding rod tips and wire tips, and mark them properly. The head of the welding rod should not be longer than 50mm, and the head of the welding wire should not be longer than 100mm.
3. The main work of welding consumables baker
According to the above requirements for welding consumables baking, such as welding consumables, manufacturers have baking instructions by the manufacturer’s instructions for baking.
The welding consumable baker must do a good job using the welding consumable baking record sheet, distribution record sheet, baking room temperature, humidity record sheet, and form; see attached.
The welding rod baker to fill out the records should be true, traceability, handwriting should be clear, baking record sheet and distribution record sheet to match.
According to the provisions of the welding wire identification of the incoming welding wire identification, and is responsible for the welding wire in the welding stock identification transplantation work.
At the end of the month, the baker must submit all completed log sheets to the Welding Technician for filing.
The welding consumable baker must do the storage, custody, issuance, and recycling of welding consumables according to the above requirements.
Welding consumable bakers must keep the welding rod room neat and clean, and there must be no debris on the welding rod room’s floor, such as welding rod heads and wire heads.

Usage of welding materials

1. Precautions for using the flux bucket bracelet
(1) The upper limit of the tensile load weight is 600N (approximately 60kgf).

(2) When using a bracelet and fixture to lift the flux, please use a suitable lifting tool and be careful not to tilt it. (When the force is uneven, it may cause damage to the bracelet and washer, leading to a falling accident.)

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(3) Please pull the bracelet vertically upwards.

2. Usage of Barreled Welding Wire

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How to use the hook of the lifting hand

Standard packaging form of welding materials

1. Manual electrode

Packaging Form Inner packaging Outer packaging Object
Carton 2 kg: length below 300mm Carton 20kg Other than the following records
5 kg: length 350-450mm
10kg: over 550mm in length
Square Plastic Box 2 kg: length below 300mm Carton 20kg For stainless steel, nickel alloy, and 9% nickel steel
5 kg: length 350-450mm
Circular Plastic Box 10 pieces: plastic box HF-1000
Aluminum Film Bag Each piece: bagged Carton 10kg CI-A1, CI-A2
2kg: Carton
2kg Carton 20kg LB-50FT, LB-52T,

2. TIG material (filling material)

Packaging Form Inner packaging Outer packaging Object
Plastic pipe installation 5kg: plastic box Except for aluminum materials
Carton packaging 5kg: cardboard box For aluminum materials

3. Welding wire (flux-cored wire)

Packaging Form Inner packaging Outer packaging Object
Disk mounted Resin tray installation Single tray cardboard box Except for stainless steel
12.5, 15 or 20kg For stainless steel
(Aluminum film bag packaging) Resin tray installation Single tray cardboard box But 5kg is only limited to welding wires of Φ0.8mm and Φ0.9mm
5, 12.5kg or 20kg Welding wires for self-protection welding and submerged arc welding
Volume 10, 20 or 25kg Single tray cardboard box Φ1.2, 1.4mm: 250kg
Barreled welding wire 250 or 350kg Φ1.6mm: 350kg
Φ1.6mm : 350kg

4. Welding wire (solid wire)

Packaging Form Inner packaging Outer packaging Object
Disk mounted 5kg, 10kg or 20kg Single tray cardboard box Diameter 0.9-1.6mm
Plastic disc Aluminum material 5, 10kg Other: 10, 20kg
Volume 12.5kg or 25kg Single tray cardboard box 12.5kg: diameter above Φ3.2mm
25kg: diameter above Φ2.0mm
Oversized roll 75, 150kg or Each roll is packaged with rust proof paper 75kg, 150 kg: preferably with a diameter of over Φ2.0mm
78, 159kg 78kg, 159kg: suitable diameter Φ6.4mm
Barreled welding wire 50 or 100kg For aluminum materials
Diameter Φ1.2, 1.6mm
250, 300 or 400kg Except for aluminum materials
Diameter Φ0.9-1.6mm

5. Soldering flux

Packaging Form Inner packing Outer packaging Object
paper bag 25kg Melt type flux
Iron can 20kg Sintered flux
Aluminum film bag 20kg Sintered flux

The shape of the packaging of the welding material (disc/roll)

1. Plate loading

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Weight (kg) Outer diameter A (mm) Wide in width B (mm) Inner diameter C (mm)
10 225 102 52
12.5 280 103 52
15 280 102 52
20 (solid welding wire) 270 103 52
20 280 103 52

2. Volume

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Weight (kg) Outer diameter A (mm) Wide in width B (mm) Inner diameter C (mm)
12.5 375 64 305
25 (excluding 04.8mm) 410 80 310
25 (04.8mm) 405 77 310
75 750 115 640
150 825 115 640
159 835 115 640

How to Purchase Qualified Welding Materials?

When it comes to welding, the quality of your materials can make or break the success of your project. Welding is a precise craft that requires the right tools and materials to ensure a strong and durable bond. Choosing the right welding materials is crucial whether you’re a professional welder or a hobbyist looking to take on welding projects. In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the essential steps to purchase qualified welding materials and how to select a suitable welding material manufacturer.

The Importance of Quality Welding Materials and Choose Welding Material Manufacturer?

Welding is a process that involves joining metals together through the application of heat and pressure. You need welding materials to withstand the job’s demands to create a strong and reliable weld. Using subpar materials can lead to weak welds, structural failures, and safety hazards. Therefore, investing in high-quality welding materials is paramount.
1. Identify Your Welding Needs
Before you start searching for welding materials, it’s essential to identify your specific welding needs. Different welding projects require different types of materials. Consider the following factors:
a. Material Type
Are you welding steel, aluminum, or another type of metal? The material you’re working with will determine the welding materials you need.
b. Welding Process
There are various welding processes, such as MIG (Metal Inert Gas), TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), and Stick welding. Each process may require specific materials and equipment.
c. Project Size
The size of your welding project matters. Smaller projects may have different material requirements than larger industrial applications.
2. Research Reputable Manufacturers
Now that you’ve defined your welding needs, it’s time to find a reliable welding material manufacturer. Here are some key considerations:
a. Industry Reputation
Look for manufacturers with a strong reputation in the welding industry. Read customer reviews and seek recommendations from experienced welders.
b. Product Range
Choose a manufacturer that offers a wide range of welding materials, ensuring you have options that match your project requirements.
c. Quality Standards
Check if the manufacturer adheres to industry quality standards and certifications. This ensures that their materials meet or exceed safety and performance requirements.
3. Assess Material Quality
When considering welding materials, never compromise on quality. Here’s how to evaluate the quality of welding materials:
a. Material Composition
Examine the composition of the welding material to ensure it matches the requirements of your project.
b. Tensile Strength
Check the tensile strength of the material. Higher tensile strength indicates greater durability and load-bearing capacity.
c. Certification
Look for welding materials with certifications or testing documentation confirming their quality and compliance.
4. Cost vs. Quality
While budget considerations are important, it’s crucial not to prioritize cost over quality. Investing more in high-quality welding materials can save you money in the long run by reducing the likelihood of weld failures and rework.
5. Customer Support and Warranty
Choose a manufacturer that provides excellent customer support and offers product warranties. This gives you peace of mind, knowing you can seek assistance if any issues arise.
In the world of welding, the importance of using qualified welding materials cannot be overstated. Whether you’re working on a DIY project or an industrial application, the quality of your materials directly impacts the outcome of your welding work. By identifying your welding needs, researching reputable manufacturers, assessing material quality, and considering factors like cost and customer support, you can confidently purchase the best welding materials for your projects.



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