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What are section steel​ solutions

What is a section steel?

Section steel is a kind of steel with certain cross-sectional shape and size, which is one of the four major varieties of steel (plate, pipe, wire).

How many types of steel sections are there?

According to the shape of the section, the section steel is divided into simple section steel and complex section steel (shaped steel). The former refers to square steel, round steel, flat steel, angle steel, hexagonal steel, etc.; the latter refers to I-beam, channel steel, rail, window frame steel, bending steel, etc.

What  is a square steel?

Steel of square section, divided into two kinds: hot-rolled and cold-rolled; hot-rolled square steel has a side length of 5-250mm; cold-drawn square steel has a side length of 3-100mm.

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What is a round steel?

Round section steel, divided into three kinds of hot-rolled, forged and cold-drawn; hot-rolled round steel diameter 5-250mm, of which 5-9mm is commonly used as raw material for drawing steel wire, called wire rod; as into the plate supply is also called hot-rolled coil. Forged round steel is coarser in diameter and is used as shaft billets. Cold drawn round steel is 3-100mm in diameter and has high dimensional accuracy.

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What is a flat steel?

Flat steel: steel with a width of 12-300 mm and a thickness of 4-60 mm, rectangular in cross-section and with a slightly pure edge. Flat steel can be finished steel, can also be made of welded pipe billet and stacked rolled sheet with thin slab.

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What is a angle steel?

Angle steel: divided into two kinds of equal and unequal angle steel. The specification of angle steel is expressed by the size of the side length and side thickness. Usually the production of angle steel specifications are 2-20, that is, the number of centimeters of the side length. For example, No. 5 equilateral angle steel means that the side length of 125px (50mm) angle steel. The same number of angles often have 2-7 different side thicknesses.

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What is a I-beam?

I-beam, also known as steel beam, is a long strip of steel with an I-shaped cross section. I-beam is divided into three types: ordinary I-beam, light I-beam and H-beam. I-beams are widely used in various building structures, bridges, vehicles, supports, machinery, etc.

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What is a channel steel?

Channel steel is a long strip of steel with a grooved cross section. Channels are carbon structural steel for construction and machinery, and are complex section steel with grooved section shape. Channel steel is mainly used in building structure, curtain wall engineering, machinery and equipment and vehicle manufacturing, etc.

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What is a window frame steel?

Window frame steel, take the billet steel with square section, hot rolled in the mill into a section of H-shaped steel, the last pass at the exit of the mill is equipped with a clip feed groove cutting device, the section of H-shaped steel from the core of the longitudinal groove cut on both sides, after cooling along the groove longitudinal cut into two T-shaped sections.

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What is a bending steel?

Bending steel is bent with steel plates or strips, there are hot-formed steel and cold-formed steel. There are more than two thousand varieties of bending steel specifications. Bending section steel with bending forming method can produce complex section steel, thin-walled section steel and hollow section steel that cannot be produced by hot-rolled method. Bending sections instead of ordinary hot-rolled sections can reduce the weight of the structure, reduce the manufacturing workload and can save a lot of metal. Bending sections are widely used in automobile, vehicle, shipbuilding, agricultural tools, furniture, aviation, bicycle and other manufacturing sectors.

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Special Steel Sections

Reinforcing steel for reinforced concrete
It is a small type of steel. It includes hot-rolled round reinforcement for reinforced concrete, hot-rolled rational reinforcement for prestressed concrete, and hot-rolled ribbon reinforcement for reinforced concrete. Cold Reinforced Steel Bar. In addition to round steel, others are also called rebar. Because the surface of the steel is rolled into ears or rebar during rolling, it is the steel used for reinforced concrete in the construction industry. Rebar according to the material yield point and tensile strength into Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ grade steel. All the above-mentioned steel bars are used directly. Heat-treated rebar for prestressed concrete Heat-treated rebar with high strength, but not for welding and spot welding with rebar made of 40Si2Mn, 48Si2Mn, 45Si2Cr and other steels after heat treatment, nominal diameter 6, 8.2, 10 mm. Cold rolled ribbed steel bars made of Q215, Q235, 24MnTi steel with nominal diameter 4-12 mm. After heat treatment of steel bars should be rolled into a disk to heat treatment state delivery.
Agricultural section steel
Agricultural steel mainly refers to agricultural production and agricultural machinery special or semi-special steel, mainly: agricultural tool steel: agricultural tool steel is for the rural production of small farm tools and general civilian edged tools of common steel. Mainly small sections of round steel, flat steel and other varieties.
Agricultural composite steel
Agricultural composite steel is divided into sickle billet, hoe billet and kitchen knife billet, used for the manufacture of sickles, hoes and other small agricultural tools and other life with knives (such as kitchen knives, etc.). This type of composite steel is made of two different compositions of carbon steel hot-rolled, the outside called the body steel containing low carbon, the body steel soft and tough shock resistance, good adhesion, easy to polish. The middle folder of a layer of edge steel containing carbon, manganese and other high, hard and wear-resistant, polished to make the knife edge, very sharp.
Plowshare steel
Plowshares for general-purpose machine-guided plows, horse-drawn plows, main plows of ordinary shallow farming implements and front small plows are generally made of wear-resistant steel with sufficient strength and toughness. China generally uses 65Mn and 65SiMnXt steel manufacturing. In addition, there are special cross-sectional sections often used as farm tool sections, such as T-shaped steel, Z-shaped steel, arc-shaped steel, double-sided reinforced steel, reinforced I-beam, grass machine blade steel, medium concave flat steel and striker steel, etc.
High-quality profiles
High-quality profiles are profiles made of high-quality steel processing. Divided into hot-rolled (forging) quality profiles, cold-drawn (dial) quality profiles and other varieties. Hot-rolled (forging) quality profiles include carbon structural steel, carbon tool steel, alloy structural steel, spring steel, stainless steel, bearing steel, alloy tool steel, die steel, high-speed tool steel and other varieties. Cold-drawn (dial) quality profiles include carbon structural steel, carbon tool steel, alloy structural steel, spring steel, stainless steel, bearing steel, alloy tool steel, high-speed tool steel, easy-to-cut steel, cold heading steel, S/5A and other varieties. s/5A is the product used, commonly used for artillery shells, bullet heads.
Material for military industry
Other varieties are mainly some special quality profiles. Including hollow steel, oxygen cylinder material, cold heading steel, industrial pure iron, hot-rolled easy-cut steel, D60, S/5A, F18, F11, etc. The latter ones are. High-quality sections are not divided into large, medium and small. round and square steel are divided into group spacing according to specifications, such as 8-10mm, 11-15mm, 18-20mm, 205-245mm. flat steel is divided into large, medium and small flat according to cross-sectional area. Hexagonal steel is not grouped into spacing. However, the group spacing of high-quality sections cannot replace the specific specifications, and the specific specifications should be filled in on the bill of lading. Quality section specifications are simple, the vast majority of round steel. In addition, there are square steel flat steel, six breast steel, hollow steel, shaped and other hot-rolled (forged) quality round steel, square steel, hexagonal steel with two kinds of dimensional deviation of ordinary precision and higher precision. And cold-drawn profiles have more accurate size and smooth surface, and some surfaces have to be polished and honed. The round steel with polished or honed surface is exquisite, called silver bright steel. High-quality profiles are seldom used, most of them are further processed by using units and used after heat treatment, therefore, in addition to ensuring the chemical composition, it is also necessary to ensure the mechanical properties after heat treatment.

Materials of steel sections

The material qualities for these steel sections are defined in the ASTM standards. ASTM standards define the specific manufacturing process of the material and determine the exact chemical composition of steel sections, through percentages of the permitted quantities of carbon, magnesium, nickel, etc., and are indicated by “Grade”.
For example, a carbon steel section can be identified with Grade A or B, a stainless-steel section with Grade TP304 or Grade TP321, a carbon steel section with Grade WPB etc..

flange material 3 - What are section steel​ solutions
Below you will find as an example tables with chemical requirements for:

  • Steel sections according to ASTM A182 Grade F304, F304L F316L.
  • Furthermore, a table with frequently used ASTM Grades, arranged on Pipes, Fittings, Flanges, Valves, Steel Sections, Bolts & Nuts, which belong together as a group.
  • As you may be have noted, ASTM A105 has no Grade. Sometimes ASTM A105N is described.
  • N stands not for Grade, but for normalized. Normalizing is a type of heat treatment, applicable to ferrous metals only. The purpose of normalizing is to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, casting, forming etc..

Carbon Steel

  • ASTM A105/ A105 M-98, ASTM A181 M-95 b Class 60, ASTM A181 M-95 b Class 70,
  • ASTM A694/ A694M (F42, F46, F48, F50, F52, F56, F60, F65, F70)
  • ASTM A515/ A515M (Gr.55, 60, 65, 70)

ASTM A105/ A105 M-98, This specification covers standards for forged carbon steel piping components, that is, flangefittingvalve, steel section, and similar part, for use in pressure systems at ambient and higher-temperature service conditions. Materials shall be subjected to heat treatment (annealing, normalizing, tempering, or quenching). Material shall conform to carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, copper, nickel, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium contents. The forgings shall be subjected to tension, hardness and hydrostatic tests, with the latter applicable when required. Material shall adhere to tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, reduction of area, and hardness requirements. Guidelines for retreatment, repair by welding, and product marking are given.
ASTM A181 M-95 b Class 60, ASTM A181 M-95 b Class 70, his specification covers nonstandard as-forged fittings, valve components, and parts for general service. Forgings made to this specification are limited to a maximum weight of 10 000 lb [4540 kg]. Larger forgings may be ordered to Specification A266/A266M.
ASTM A694/ A694M (F42, F46, F48, F50, F52, F56, F60, F65, F70), This specification covers carbon and alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high-pressure transmission service. A chemical heat analysis of the steel shall be made, and the steel shall conform to specified chemical composition requirements. Materials adhere to testing and tensile property requirements as well.
ASTM A515/ A515M (Gr.55, 60, 65, 70), This specification covers carbon-silicon steel plates primarily for intermediate- and higher-temperature service in welded boilers and other pressure vessels. Plates are available in three grades having different strength levels: Grade 60; Grade 65; and Grade 70. The steel shall be killed and made to a coarse austenitic grain size practice. The steel shall conform to the chemical requirements specified. Tension test shall be made to conform to the requirements specified.

Low Temperature Carbon Steel

  • ASTM A350/ A350M-99(LF1, LF2, LF3, LF5, LF6, LF9, LF787),
  • ASTM A707/ A707M(L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L5, L6, L7, L8)
  • ASTM A516/ A516M (Gr. 60, 65, 70)

ASTM A350/ A350M-99(LF1, LF2, LF3, LF5, LF6, LF9, LF787), This specification covers several grades of carbon and low alloy steel forged or ring-rolled flanges, forged fittings and valves for low-temperature service. The steel specimens shall be melt processed using open-hearth, basic oxygen, electric furnace or vacuum-induction melting. A sufficient discard shall be made to secure freedom from injurious piping and undue segregation. The materials shall be forged and shall undergo heat treatment such as normalizing, tempering, quenching and precipitation heat treatment. Heat analysis and product analysis shall be performed wherein the steel materials shall conform to the required chemical compositions of carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, copper, columbium, vanadium, and nitrogen. The materials shall also undergo tension tests and shall conform to the required values of tensile strength, yield strength and elongation. Impact tests shall also be performed and the steel materials shall conform to the required values of minimum impact energy, temperature, and minimum equivalent absorbed energy. Hardness and hydrostatic tests shall also be performed.
ASTM A707/ A707M(L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L5, L6, L7, L8), This specification covers forged carbon and alloy steel flanges intended primarily for petroleum and gas pipelines in areas subject to low ambient temperatures. Eight grades, four yield-strength classes, and three different notch toughness levels are included. All material shall be heat treated by annealing, normalizing, precipitation hardening, quenching-and-tempering, normalizing-and-tempering, normalizing-and-precipitation hardening, or quenching-and-precipitation hardening. A chemical heat analysis shall be made and conform to the requirements as to chemical composition specified. The material in the weld neck shall conform to the mechanical property requirements specified. Hardness test, impact test, ultrasonic test, tension test, and hydrostatic test shall be made to conform to the specified requirements.
ASTM A516/ A516M (Gr. 60, 65, 70), This specification covers carbon steel plates intended primarily for service in welded pressure vessels where improved notch toughness is important. According to different strength levels, the plates are available in four grades: Grades 55, 60, 65, and 70. The maximum thickness of plates is limited only by the capacity of the composition to meet the specified mechanical property requirements. The steel shall be killed and shall conform to fine austenitic grain size requirements. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation shall be determined by a tension test for the plates.

Stainless Steel

  • ASTM A182/ A182 M-98ª(F304, F304H, F304L, F304N, F304 LN, F309H, F310, F310H, F310 MoLN, F316, F316H, F316L, F316N, F316LN, F317, F317L, F347, F347 H, F348, F348 H, F321, F321 H)
  • ASTM A240/ A240M( 304,310, 316)

ASTM A182/ A182 M-98ª(F 304, F 304H, F 304L, F 304N, F304 LN, F 309H, F310, F 310H, F 310 MoLN, F 316, F 316H, F 316L, F 316N, F 316LN, F 317, F 317L, F 347, F 347 H, F 348, F 348 H, F 321, F321 H), This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, steel sections and valves and parts for high-temperature service. After hot working, forgings shall be cooled to a specific temperature prior to heat treatment, which shall be performed in accordance with certain requirements such as heat treatment type, austenitizing/solution temperature, cooling media, and quenching. The materials shall conform to the required chemical composition for carbon, manganese, phosphorus, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, columbium, titanium. The material shall conform to the requirements as to mechanical properties for the grade ordered such as tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, Brinell hardness. All H grades and grade F 63 shall be tested for average grain size.
ASTM A240/ A240M ( 304,310, 316), This specification covers chromium, chromium-nickel, and chromium-manganese-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for pressure vessels and for general applications. The steel shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition specified. The material shall conform to the mechanical properties specified.

Alloy Steel & High Yield Steel

  • ASTM A182/ A182 M-98a( F1, F2, F5, F5a, F9, F91, F92, F911, F11 Class 1, F11 Class 2, F11 Class 2, F12 Class 1, F12 Class 2,F21 F3V, F21 3VCb, F22 Class 1, F22 Class 3, F23, F24, FR)
  • ASTM A387/ A387M(Gr.2, 12, 11, 22, 22L, 21, 21L, 5, 9, 91)

This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, steel sections and valves and parts for high-temperature service. After hot working, forgings shall be cooled to a specific temperature prior to heat treatment, which shall be performed in accordance with certain requirements such as heat treatment type, austenitizing/solution temperature, cooling media, and quenching. The materials shall conform to the required chemical composition for carbon, manganese, phosphorus, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, columbium, titanium. The material shall conform to the requirements as to mechanical properties for the grade ordered such as tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, Brinell hardness. All H grades and grade F 63 shall be tested for average grain size.

Duplex Steel

  • ASTM A182 (F50, F51, F52, F53M F54, F55, F57, F59, F60, F61, F904L)

This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, steel sections and valves and parts for high-temperature service. After hot working, forgings shall be cooled to a specific temperature prior to heat treatment, which shall be performed in accordance with certain requirements such as heat treatment type, austenitizing/solution temperature, cooling media, and quenching. The materials shall conform to the required chemical composition for carbon, manganese, phosphorus, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, columbium, titanium. The material shall conform to the requirements as to mechanical properties for the grade ordered such as tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, Brinell hardness. All H grades and grade F 63 shall be tested for average grain size.

Nickel Alloy

  • SB 564(UNS N02200, UNS N04400, UNS N06022, UNS N06025, UNS N06035, UNS N06045, UNS N06058, UNS N06059, UNS N06110), specification for nickel alloy forgings

Fabrication and construction technology of steel structure

Scope of application: It applies to the processing and fabrication process of building steel structure, including the selection of process flow, sample placement, numbering, cutting, straightening, forming, edge processing, pipe ball processing, hole making, friction surface processing, end processing, assembly of members, round pipe member processing and pre-assembly of steel members.

Metal Material Requirements

Steel, welding materials, coating materials and fasteners used in steel structures should have quality certificates and must meet the design requirements and the provisions of current standards.
In addition to the factory quality certificate of the production plant, the raw materials entering the factory shall be witnessed and sampled, sent, inspected and accepted on site in accordance with the contract requirements and relevant current standards under the witness of Party A and the supervisor, and inspection records shall be made. And provide the inspection report to Party A and the supervisor.
In the process, if the raw materials are found to be defective, they must be handled by the inspectors, competent technical personnel to study.
Material substitution should be made by the manufacturing unit in advance with the material certificate of application (technical approval sheet), to Party A and the supervisor after the examination, confirmed by the design unit before substitution.
The use of flux skin off or core rusted welding rod, moisture caking or has been melted and burned flux and rusted wire is strictly prohibited. Used for nail welding nail, its surface shall not affect the use of cracks, striations, dents and burrs and other defects.
Welding materials should be centralized management, the establishment of a special warehouse, dry, well ventilated.
Bolts should be stored in a dry and ventilated room. Acceptance of high-strength bolts in the warehouse should be carried out according to the requirements of the current national standard “Design, Construction and Acceptance Regulations for High-strength Bolt Connections in Steel Structures” JGJ82, and the use of rusted, stained, damp, bruised and mixed batches of high-strength bolts is strictly prohibited.
The paint should meet the design requirements and be stored in the special warehouse, and the expired, deteriorated and lumpy paint should not be used.

Production process flow of section steel

1. Sample and material numbering

  • 1)Familiar with the construction drawings, and if you find any doubt, you should contact with relevant technical department to solve it.
  • 2)Prepare the material for making sample plate and sample rod, generally thin iron and small flat steel can be used.
  • 3)The steel ruler needed for the sample must be calibrated and reviewed by the measurement department, and can be used only after passing.
  • 4) The number of material before the material must understand the material and specifications of raw materials, check the quality of raw materials. Different specifications, different materials of the parts should be numbered separately. And according to the principle of the first big then small number of material in order.
  • 5) Sample rod on the application of paint processing number, component number, specification, while marking on the hole diameter, work line, bending line and other processing symbols.
  • 6) The sample and the number of materials should be reserved for shrinkage (including on-site welding shrinkage) and cutting, milling end and other required machining allowance.

Milling end allowance: shear after processing generally add 3-4mm per side, gas cutting after processing then add 4-5 mm per side.
Cutting allowance: 3mm for automatic gas cutting and 4mm for manual gas cutting.
The welding shrinkage is given by the process according to the structural characteristics of the member.

  • 7) The main force members and the need to bend members, in the number of material should be taken in the direction of the process, the outer side of the bent parts should not have the same punch point and scar defects.
  • 8) Number of material should be conducive to cutting and ensure the quality of parts.
  • 9) The remaining material after this number should be marked, including the residual material number, specification, material and furnace batch number, etc., in order to facilitate the re-use of the residual material.

2. Cutting (H-beam production line)
The steel after undercutting and scribing must be undercut according to its required shape and size.
1) The following points should be noted when shearing.

  • (1) When a steel plate arranged on many parts and several intersecting shear lines, should be prearranged to a reasonable shear program before shearing.
  • (2) The material shear bending deformation, must be corrected; shear surface rough or with burrs, must be repaired polished.
  • (3) The shearing process, the metal near the incision, extrusion and bending due to shear, important structural components and the interface position of the weld, must be used to milling, planing or grinding wheel grinding and other methods.

2) The following construction points should be noted in the construction of sawing machinery.

  • (1) Section steel should be straightened before sawing.
  • (2) Single sawing components, first scribe the number of material line, and then the line sawing. Batch processing components, can be pre-installed positioning stopper for processing.
  • (3) Processing accuracy requirements of the important components, should be considered to set aside an appropriate amount of machining allowance for sawing after the end face finish milling.
  • (4) When sawing, attention should be paid to the control of the verticality of the cutting section.

3) The following process points should be noted when performing gas cutting operation.

  • (1) Before gas cutting, all equipment and tools of the whole gas cutting system must be checked and confirmed to be in normal operation and ensure safety.
  • (2) The correct process parameters should be selected when gas cutting. When cutting, the shape of oxygen jet (wind line) should be adjusted so that it can reach and maintain clear contour, long wind line and high shooting force.
  • (3) Before gas cutting, the dirt, oil and floating rust and other debris on the steel surface should be removed, and a certain space should be left underneath to facilitate the blowing out of slag.
  • (4) When gas cutting, tempering must be prevented.
  • (5) In order to prevent the deformation of gas cutting, the operation should start from the short side first; small pieces should be cut first, and then large pieces; more complicated ones should be cut first, and then simpler ones.

3. Straightening and forming (H-beam production line)
1) Straightening
(1) Finished cold straightening, generally using flange leveling machine, bracing machine, hydraulic press, press and other mechanical forces for straightening.
(2) Flame straightening, heating methods such as point heating, linear heating and triangular heating.

  • ① Low carbon steel and ordinary low-alloy steel heat correction heating temperature is generally 600-900 ℃, and 800-900 ℃ for the ideal temperature of thermoplastic deformation, but is not allowed to exceed 900 ℃.
  • ② Medium carbon steel will produce cracks due to deformation, so medium carbon steel is generally not flame correction.
  • ③ Ordinary low-alloy steel should be slowly cooled after heating correction.

(2) Forming

  • (1) Thermal processing: for low carbon steel is generally in 1000-1100 ℃, thermal processing termination temperature should not be less than 700 ℃. Heating temperature at 500-550 ℃. Steel produces brittleness, hammering and bending are strictly prohibited, otherwise it is easy to make the steel fracture.
  • (2) Cold working: steel is processed and made at room temperature, most of which is carried out using mechanical equipment and special tools.

4. Edge processing (including end milling flat)

  • (1) Commonly used edge processing methods are: shovel edge, planing edge, milling edge, carbon arc gas planing, gas cutting and beveling machine processing.
  • (2) Gas-cut parts, when the need to eliminate the impact area for edge processing, the minimum machining allowance of 2.0mm.
  • (3) The depth of the machined edge should be able to ensure that the surface defects are removed, but not less than 2.0mm, there should be no damage and cracks on the surface after processing, and when grinding wheel processing, the grinding marks should follow the edge.
  • (4) The edge of the part of carbon structural steel, after manual cutting, its surface should be cleaned up, and there should not be unevenness of more than 1.0mm.
  • (5) The end support edge of the component requires planing top tight and the component end cross-sectional accuracy requirements are high, no matter what method of cutting and made of what kind of steel, the edge should be planed or milled.
  • (6) Construction drawings have special requirements or provisions for welding edges need to plan the edges, general plates or sections of the shear edge does not need to plan.
  • (7) The edge of the parts after mechanical automatic cutting and air arc cutting, the flatness of the cutting surface, are not more than 1.0mm. the free edge of the main stress members, after air cutting need to plan the edge or milling edge of the processing margin, at least 2mm per side, should be free of burrs and other defects.
  • (8) The top tight contact surface of the column end after milling should be more than 75% of the area tightly, and the plugging area should not be more than 25% when checked with 0.3mm plugging rule, and the edge gap should not be more than 0.5mm.
  • (9) The choice of milling port and milling volume should be decided according to the workpiece material and processing requirements, and a reasonable choice is the guarantee of processing quality.
  • (10)The end processing of the member should be carried out after the correction is qualified.
  • (11) Necessary measures should be taken according to the form of the component to ensure that the milling flat end is perpendicular to the axis.

5. Hole making
(1) The members of the use of high-strength bolts (large hexagonal head bolts, torsion shear bolts, etc.) ﹑ half-round head rivets tapping screws and other hole production methods are: drilling, milling, punching, reaming or countersinking, etc..
(2) Members of the hole production priority using drilling, when the proof of certain material quality, thickness and hole diameter, punching will not cause brittleness when allowed to use punching.
Thickness of all ordinary structural steel below 5mm allows punching, secondary structure thickness less than 12mm allows the use of punching. On the punched hole, no subsequent welding (slotted) shall be applied, unless it is proved that the material retains considerable toughness after punching, then welding construction is allowed. Generally in the need for the hole punched and then drilled large, then the punched hole must be smaller than the specified diameter of 3mm.
(3) Before drilling, one is to sharpen the drill bit, and the other is to choose the chip margin reasonably.
(4) The bolt hole made should be square cylindrical and perpendicular to the surface of the steel at the location, and the inclination should be less than 1/20, and the hole should be free of burrs, ruptures, flares or bumpy marks around its perimeter, and the cutting should be cleared.
(5) Refined or reamed bolt hole diameter and bolt rod diameter equal, using with drilling or reaming after assembly, the hole should have the accuracy of H12, hole wall surface roughness Ra ≤ 12.5μm.
6. Friction surface processing

  • (1) The processing of the friction surface of the high-strength bolt connection can be sandblasted, shot blasted and sanding machine grinding methods. (Note: grinding wheel machine grinding direction should be perpendicular to the direction of force on the member, and the grinding range shall not be less than 4 times the diameter of the bolt.)
  • (2) The treated friction surface should take anti-oil and damage protection measures.
  • (3) The manufacturing plant and installation unit shall conduct the anti-slip coefficient test with the steel manufacturing batch respectively. Manufacturing batch can be divided into divisions (sub-part) of the project provisions of the volume of work every 2000t for a batch, less than 2000t can be regarded as a batch. When two or more surface treatment processes are selected, each treatment process should be tested separately, each batch of three groups of test pieces.
  • (4) Slip resistance test specimens should be processed by the manufacturer, the specimens and the representative steel members should be the same material, made in the same batch, using the same friction surface treatment process and have the same surface state, and apply the same batch of high-strength bolts with the same performance level, stored in the same environmental conditions.
  • (5) The thickness of the test piece steel plate should be determined according to the thickness of the representative plate in the steel structure project. The surface of the specimen plate should be flat, free of oil and dirt, and the edges of the holes and plates are free of flying edges and burrs.
  • (6) The manufacturer shall conduct the test of slip resistance coefficient at the same time of steel structure manufacturing and issue a report. The test report shall state the test method and results.
  • (7) According to the current national standard “Design, Construction and Acceptance of High Strength Bolted Steel Structures” JGJ82 or the design documents, the same material and treatment method should be used to make the components for the review of the slip resistance coefficient, and handed over at the same time with the components.

7. Pipe ball processing

  • (1) Rod manufacturing process: purchase of steel pipe → inspection of material, specifications, surface quality (anti-corrosion treatment) → undercutting, beveling → assembly with cone head or sealing plate spot welding → welding → inspection → anti-corrosion pre-treatment → anti-corrosion treatment.
  • (2) Bolt ball manufacturing process: Steel bar (or ingot) for pressure processing or round steel for machining → forging blank → normalizing treatment → processing of positioning thread hole (M20) and its surface → processing of each thread hole and plane → playing processing work number, playing ball number → anticorrosion pretreatment → anticorrosion treatment.
  • (3) Tapered head and sealing plate manufacturing process: Finished steel material → forging blank for tire mold → normalizing treatment → machining.
  • (4) Production process of welded ball node mesh frame: purchase steel pipe → inspection of material, specification and surface quality → sample placement → material placement → hollow ball production → assembling → anti-corrosion treatment.
  • (5) Welded hollow ball manufacturing process: material (with imitation cutter) → pressing (heating) forming → machine tool or automatic gas cutting bevel → welding → welding seam nondestructive inspection → anticorrosion treatment → packaging.

8. Assembling
1) Before assembly, the staff must be familiar with the construction drawings of the components and the relevant technical requirements, and review the quality of the parts to be assembled according to the requirements of the construction drawings.
2) Due to insufficient size of raw materials, or technical requirements need to splice parts, generally must be assembled before the completion of splicing.
3) In the use of tire mold assembly must follow the following provisions.

  • (1) The choice of site must be flat, and has sufficient strength.
  • (2) The layout of the assembly mold must be based on the characteristics of its steel components to consider the pre-placement of welding shrinkage and other processing allowances.
  • (3) After assembling the first batch of members, the quality inspection department must carry out a comprehensive inspection, and only after passing the inspection can the assembly be continued.
  • (4) Components in the assembly process must be assembled in strict accordance with the provisions of the process, when there are hidden welds, must first apply welding, and only after passing the inspection can cover. When there are complex assembly parts are not easy to weld, the method of welding while assembling can also be used to complete its assembly work.
  • (5) In order to reduce the deformation and assembly order, the method of assembling into parts first, and then assembling into members can be adopted.

4) The choice of assembly method of steel structure components must be based on the structural characteristics and technical requirements of the components, combined with the processing capacity of the manufacturing plant, machinery and equipment, etc., to choose a method that can effectively control the quality of assembly and high production efficiency.
5) Typical structure assembly
(1) Welded H-beam construction process
Process flow (H-beam production line)

Material → assembly → welding → correction → secondary material → hole making → assembly and welding of other parts → correction and grinding

(2) General pipe rolling process flow chart
1) Pre-assembled number according to the design requirements and technical documents.
2) Pre-assembled combination parts selection principles: as far as possible, the main force frame, node connection structure is complex, component tolerances close to the limit and representative of the combination of components.
3) Pre-assembly should be carried out on a solid, stable platform type tire frame. The level of its support points.

A≤300-1000m2; tolerance ≤2mm.
A ≤ 1000-5000m2; tolerance <3mm.

  • (1) Pre-assembly of all members should be controlled according to the construction drawings, the center of gravity line of each bar should intersect in the center of the node, and completely in a free state, no external force is allowed to force fixed. Single member support points regardless of column, sorghum, support, should be no less than two support points.
  • (2) Pre-assembled components control benchmark, the centerline should be clearly marked, and with the platform baseline and ground baseline relatively consistent. Control benchmark should be consistent with the design requirements benchmark, if you need to change the pre-assembly benchmark position, should be approved by the process design.
  • (3) All the components to be pre-assembled, the production must be completed by the special inspector to accept and meet the quality standards of single components. The same single component, it is desirable to be interchangeable, without affecting the overall geometry.
  • (4) In the whole process of pre-assembly on the tire frame, shall not use flame or mechanical and other ways to amend, cut, or use heavy ballast, ramming, hammering.
  • (5) Large frame open-air pre-assembly testing time, recommended before sunrise, after sunset regularly. The accuracy of the tape measure used, should be consistent with the installation unit.

4) High-strength bolted connections pre-assembly, can be used to punch nail positioning and temporary bolt fastening. Trial bolts in a set of holes shall not be less than 30% of the bolt holes, and not less than 2. The number of punched nails shall not be more than 1/3 of the temporary bolts.
5) After the pre-installation of the application of the test hole machine inspection, when using the hole than the nominal diameter of 1.0mm test hole machine inspection, the passage rate of each group of holes is not less than 85%; when using the test hole machine inspection than the nominal diameter of the bolt 0.3mm, the passage rate of 100%, the test hole machine must be free to wear vertical fall.
(6) According to the provisions of this regulation 5) check can not pass the hole, allow the hole repair (reaming, grinding, scraping holes). After repairing the hole, such as super specification, allow the use of welding material matching the parent material welding patch, re-hole making, but not allowed in the pre-assembled tire frame.

Application characteristics of section steel

Application characteristics of H-beam
Hot-rolled H-beams have excellent mechanical properties and superior use performance by reasonably allocating the height to width ratio of cross-sectional dimensions according to different applications.
The design style is flexible and abundant. In the case of the same beam height, the opening of steel structure can be 50% larger than that of concrete structure, thus making the building arrangement more flexible.
Light weight of structure. Compared with the concrete structure, the weight of the structure is lighter, and the reduction of the structural weight reduces the structural design internal force, which can make the building structure with low foundation treatment requirements, easy construction and lower cost.
The steel structure mainly made of hot-rolled H-beam has a scientific and reasonable structure, good plasticity and flexibility, and high structural stability, which is suitable for building structures with large vibration and impact loads and strong resistance to natural disasters, especially for building structures in some multi-earthquake zones. According to statistics, in the world, in the event of a devastating earthquake with a magnitude of 7 or more, the degree of damage to the steel structure of H-beam-based buildings is minimal.
Increase the effective use area of the structure. Compared with concrete structure, the cross-sectional area of steel structure column is small, which can increase the effective useable area of the building, depending on the form of the building, it can increase the effective useable area by 4-6%.
Compared with welded H-beam, it can significantly save labor and materials, reduce the consumption of raw materials, energy and labor, low residual stress, and good appearance and surface quality.
It is convenient for mechanical processing, structural connection and installation, and also easy to dismantle and reuse.
The use of H-beam can effectively protect the environment in three aspects: first, compared with concrete, dry construction can be used, resulting in less noise and less dust; second, due to the reduction in self-weight, the foundation construction takes less soil, which is less destructive to land resources, in addition to greatly reducing the amount of concrete, reducing the amount of rock excavation, which is conducive to the protection of the ecological environment; third, after the expiration of the service life of the building structure, the structure is dismantled The amount of solid waste generated is small, and the value of scrap steel resources recovery is high.
The steel structure mainly made of hot-rolled H-beam has a high degree of industrialization, which is convenient for machinery manufacturing, intensive production, high precision, convenient installation and easy quality assurance, and can be built into a real housing production factory, bridge production factory, industrial plant production factory, etc. The development of steel structure has created and driven the development of hundreds of new industries.
The construction of the project is fast, covers a small area, and is suitable for all-weather construction and is little affected by climatic conditions. The construction speed of steel structure made of hot rolled H-beam is about 2-3 times of the construction speed of concrete structure, which increases the capital turnover rate exponentially and reduces the financial cost, thus saving investment. Take the “Jinmao Tower” in Pudong, Shanghai, China as an example, the main structure of nearly 400m high was topped out in less than half a year, while the steel-hybrid structure took two years to complete.
The application characteristics of angle steel
Angle steel: commonly known as angle iron, is a long strip of steel with two sides perpendicular to each other in an angle shape. There are equal-sided angle and unequal-sided angle. The two sides of the equal-sided angle are equal in width, and its specifications are expressed in millimeters of the side width × side width × side thickness. Such as “∠30×30×3”, that is, the side width of 30 mm, the side thickness of 3 mm equal-sided angle. The model number can also be used, the model number is the number of centimeters of the side width, such as ∠3#. Model does not indicate the size of different side thicknesses in the same model, and thus in the contract and other documents will be the angle of the side width, side thickness dimensions to fill out the complete, to avoid using the model alone. The specification of hot-rolled equilateral angle is 2#-20#. Angle steel can be composed of various different force members according to the different needs of the structure, but also can be used as a connection between the members. It is widely used in various building structures and engineering structures, such as house beams, bridges, power transmission towers, lifting and transportation machinery, ships, industrial furnaces, reaction towers, container racks and warehouse shelves.
Application characteristics of channel steel
Channel steel is a long strip of steel with a grooved cross-section. Its specifications, such as 120 * 53 * 5, that is, the waist height of 120 mm, leg width of 53 mm, waist thickness of 5 mm channel steel, or 12 # channel steel. Waist height of the same channel, such as several different leg width and waist thickness also need to add abc to the right of the model to distinguish, such as 25a # 25b # 25c # and so on. The channel steel is divided into ordinary channel steel and light channel steel. The specifications of hot-rolled common channel are 5-40#. The specifications of hot-rolled variant channels supplied by agreement between supply and demand are 6.5-30#. Channels are mainly used in building structures, vehicle manufacturing and other industrial structures, and are often used in conjunction with I-beams.
Application characteristics of I-beam
I-beam, also called steel beam, is a long strip of steel with a cross-section of I-beam shape. Its specifications are expressed in millimeters of waist height (h) * leg width (b) * waist thickness (d), such as “I160*88*6”, which means I-beam with waist height of 160 mm, leg width of 88 mm and waist thickness of 6 mm. The specification of I-beam can also be expressed in model number, which indicates the number of centimeters of waist height, such as I-16#. Waist height of the same I-beam, such as several different leg width and waist thickness, need to add abc to the right of the model to distinguish, such as 32a # 32b # 32c #. I-beam is divided into ordinary I-beam and light I-beam, and the specification of hot-rolled ordinary I-beam is 10-63#. The specifications of hot rolled ordinary I-beam supplied by agreement between supply and demand are 12-55#. I-beams are widely used in various building structures, bridges, vehicles, brackets, machinery, etc.
Application characteristics of cold-formed steel
Cold-formed steel is the main material for making light steel structure, made of cold-formed steel plate or steel strip. Its wall thickness can not only be made very thin, but also greatly simplify the production process and improve production efficiency. It is possible to produce various profiles and cold-formed steel of different materials with uniform wall thickness but complex cross-sectional shape, which are difficult to produce by general hot-rolling methods. Cold-formed steel is widely used in various construction structures, but also in vehicle manufacturing, agricultural machinery manufacturing and other aspects.

Shaped steel includes gear ring, horseshoe steel, magnetic pole steel, presser foot plate, shallow channel steel, small channel steel, d-beam, ball flat steel, feed cloth tooth steel, hot rolled hexagonal steel, etc.. In addition there are rivet steel, agricultural tool steel, window frame steel.

Best section steel solution.

In the steel section solution, we are supplying the best quality of steel sections with proper measurement and specification. The main features of these sections include:

  • Strength: The strength is less than that of cast iron but it is more than mild steel.
  • Toughness: The toughness can be obtained by having a controlled toughness in order to get sufficient ductility at high temperatures such as impact and shock loads etc.
  • Strength properties: There are many standards available for designing the section into required shapes and sizes like AISI/ASTM standard SAE J429 & J438 etc…

How to get cost-effective section steel?

Steel is a material that is used in various industries for its durability and strength. It can last for long periods of time without losing its quality. It is also easy to install, which makes it a popular choice among many contractors. Steel comes in different sizes and shapes, which are used by construction companies while building houses or buildings. There are many types of steel available on the market today including hot rolled beams, plates, bars and more. The most commonly used type of steel is section steel which consists of sections cut from large pieces of flat steel called slabs or billets that have been rolled into round bars or rectangular tubes with a certain cross-sectional area (width) at each end called flange widths while still maintaining its flat shape along with uniform thickness throughout its length as well as width (depth). Section steel comes in many different sizes ranging from 12mm x 1mm up to 1500mm x 20mm depending upon what your project requires or needs such as if you need a basic structure like framing or something more complex like forming walls using precast concrete panels and other materials such as wood flooring plywood etcetera..
Nowadays, many steel companies can provide in-house solutions. This means that they not only offer the products but also do the design and manufacturing as well. This will save your time and resources.
You should choose a supplier that has in-house solutions for your project since it will save both time and money for you. Moreover, if you choose an overseas supplier, there are chances that it may take longer to get your product delivered because of various factors such as shipping cost and other transportation factors. Therefore, the best option is to choose a local supplier who offers all types of sections at reasonable prices with quality workmanship.
You should select a supplier that is well known in the industry with good reputation. You will get quality products at reasonable prices.
In the construction industry, there are numerous suppliers of section steel. You should select a supplier that is well known in the industry with good reputation. You will get quality products at reasonable prices.
This is because reputable suppliers usually have experienced and professional staff who are able to offer you better quality products as well as proper technical support for your project. They can also help you find pre-fabricated sections that match your requirements and needs as per building codes or other regulations requiring specific materials for certain applications such as wind load resistance, seismic loads etc.,
You can choose to buy from an overseas supplier if you are unable to get a good solution from a local supplier. This may be advantageous for you as domestic suppliers are often more expensive due to the import duty and tax.
Import duty is a tax on goods imported into a country, while import duty is charged as a percentage of the value of the good in question (typically 10%). For example, if you purchase 100 units of steel at $10 each, your total cost will be $1,000 ($10 x 100). If your country charges 10% import duty on this type of transaction, then it would pay $100 ($1k x 10%) in taxes and fees at the customs gate upon arrival.
Selecting a supplier for cost-effective section steel is often a challenge, but it can be done easily if you keep the above points in mind.
When you are purchasing anything, the most important consideration is to select an experienced supplier. In this way, you will be able to get cost-effective section steel.
Here are some key points that can help you choose a good supplier:

  • A good reputation: The first thing that comes to mind when choosing a supplier is their reputation in the industry and how long they have been operating for. This information should be easily available on their website or from other sources like Google reviews and testimonials from past customers. If possible, talk to current or past clients who have used the services of the company before making your final decision about which one will work best for your needs.
  • Well-known in industry: Another important factor when selecting a supplier is whether it is well known by developers within this field so that it’s easy for them to find out about its reputation among other professionals who are familiar with what goes on behind closed doors during construction projects.”

Conclusion

If you’re looking for cost-effective section steel, then you should contact your local suppliers. They will help you with the design and manufacturing process at reasonable prices. If they are unable to do so, then consider buying from an overseas supplier who has good reputation in this field.
Source: China Section Steel Solutions Supplier – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.epowermetals.com)

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