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What are socket weld pipe fittings

What are socket weld pipe fittings

Socket welded pipe fittings are pipe connectors machined after die forging of round steel or steel ingots. Their connection form is socket welding (SW), which inserts the steel pipe into the socket for welding. Therefore, they are called “socket pipe fittings”, and the main manufacturing standards are ANSI/ASME B16.11.

How socket welding works

Socket welding is named after the fitting in which the pipe is placed for welding. These fittings include recessed receptacles into which the pipe is inserted before welding in place.
When inserting the pipe into the socket, there must be a gap between the end of the pipe and the bottom of the socket. This gap can prevent stress damage when the pipe expands to the socket due to heat during welding. This gap can be measured manually and a reference line can be marked on the pipe, or a permanent mating tool can be inserted into the joint to ensure that the pipe does not enter the socket at the bottom. Once placed, the pipe shall be fixed there by fillet welding where the pipe diameter meets the socket.
Socket welding creates a sealed, leak proof and high-pressure pipeline structure for the transmission of liquid or gas. Unlike butt welding, socket welding does not require any pre welding processing, but in order to ensure the integrity of the weld, both ends of the pipe should be clean.

Standard for Socket Weld Connections

Following Standards are used for designing socket weld pipe fittings:

  • ASME B16.11: Forged Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded.
  • MSS-SP-83: Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and Threaded.
  • ASME B16.34: Valves — Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End.

Made to ASTM A234, also available in accordance with ASME B16.11. This standard covers dimensions, pressure-temperature ratings, markings, tolerances, and requirements for carbon and forged carbon steel materials. In terms of acceptable forms of material, these may be bars, forgings, seamless tubing, and seamless pipe that meet the requirements for accessory chemicals, mechanical properties, and practices.

Metal Material of Socket Weld Pipe Fittings

Socket weld pipe fittings can be manufactured from following materials:

Stainless Steel:

  • ASTM A/SA182 F304, F304L,F316, F316L, 316Ti, F317L, F321,F321H,  F310H, F347H, N08904, F44 etc. 
  • (W1.4301, 1.4306, 1.4948, 1.4401, 1.4404, 1.4571, 1.4438, 1.4541, 1.4878, 1.4550, 1.4845, 1.4539, 1.4547 etc.).

Duplex & Super Duplex:

  • ASTM A/SA182 F51, F53, F55, F59, F60( w1.4462, 1.4410, 1.4501, 1.4507 etc.)

Nickel Alloy:

  • ASTM B564 N10276, N06022,N04400,N06600,N06601,N06625,N08800,N08825,N08020 (w2.4819,2.4360,2.4361,2.4602,2.4816,2.4851,2.4856,2.4858,1.4876,1.4958 ) etc.

Other Alloys:

  • ASTM A105,A105N;  St37.2, C22.8;
  • ASTM A182 F11, F12, F22, F5, F91;
  • ASTM A350 LF2, LF3;
  • ASTM A694 F42, F46, F48, F50, F52, F56,F60,F65,F70 etc.

Carbon Steel (A-105)

Chemical Properties

Grade C Mn Si P S Cr Mo Ni
A105 0.035 0.6 – 1.05 0.1 – 0.35 0.035 0.04 0.3 0.12 0.4
A350 LF2 0.3 0.6 – 1.35 0.15 – 0.3 0.035 0.04 0.3 0.12 0.4
A350 LF3 0.2 0.9 0.20-0.35 0.035 0.04 0.3 0.12 3.3 – 3.7
A694 F52 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64  0.15-0.35 0.025-0.030  0.025-0.030 
A694 F56 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64  0.15-0.35 0.025-0.030  0.025-0.030 
A694 F60 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64  0.15-0.35 0.025-0.030  0.025-0.030 
A694 F65 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64  0.15-0.35 0.025-0.030  0.025-0.030 
A694 F70 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64  0.15-0.35 0.025-0.030  0.025-0.030 

Mechanical Properties

Grade Tensile Strength (Mpa) Yield Strength  (Mpa) Elongation (%)
A105 485 250 22
A350 LF2 485 – 655 250 22
A350 LF3 485 – 655 260 22
A694 F52 455 360 20
A694 F56 470 385 20
A694 F60 515 415 20
A694 F65 530 450 20
A694 F70 565 485 18

Alloy Steel (A-182)

Alloy Steel Chemical Composition

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits, percent

AISI Number

C

Mn

P

Max.

S

Max.

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

AISI 4130 0.28/0.33 0.40/0.60 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4137 0.35/0.40 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4140 0.38/0.43 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4142 0.40/0.45 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4145 0.43/0.48 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4147 0.45/0.50 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4150 0.48/0.53 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15/0.25
AISI 4161 0.56/0.64 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/0.90 0.25/0.35
AISI 4320 0.17/0.22 0.45/0.65 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 1.65/2.00 0.40/0.60 0.20/0.30
AISI 4340 0.38/0.43 0.60/0.80 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 1.65/2.00 0.70/0.90 0.20/0.30
AISI 4419 0.18/0.23 0.45/0.65 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.45/0.60
AISI 4615 0.13/0.18 0.45/0.65 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 1.65/2.00 0.20/0.30
AISI 4620 0.17/0.22 0.45/0.65 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 1.65/2.00 0.20/0.30
AISI 4621 0.18/0.23 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 1.65/2.00 0.20/0.30
AISI 4626 0.24/0.29 0.45/0.65 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/1.00 0.15/0.25
AISI 4718 0.16/0.21 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.90/1.20 0.35/0.55 0.30/0.40
AISI 4720 0.17/0.22 0.50/0.70 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.90/1.20 0.35/0.55 0.15/0.25
AISI 4815 0.13/0.18 0.40/0.60 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 3.25/3.75 0.20/0.30
AISI 4817 0.15/0.20 0.40/0.60 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 3.25/3.75 0.20/0.30
AISI 4820 0.18/0.23 0.50/0.70 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 3.25/3.75 0.20/0.30
AISI 5120 0.17/0.22 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/0.90
AISI 5130 0.28/0.33 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10
AISI 5132 0.30/0.35 0.60/0.80 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.75/1.00
AISI 5135 0.33/0.38 0.60/0.80 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.05
AISI 5140 0.38/0.43 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/0.90
AISI 5145 0.43/0.48 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/0.90
AISI 5147 0.46/0.51 0.70/0.95 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.85/1.15
AISI 5150 0.48/0.53 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/0.90
AISI 5155 0.51/0.59 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.70/0.90
AISI 6150 0.48/0.53 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.80/1.10 0.15 min.
AISI 8615 0.13/0.18 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8617 0.15/0.20 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8620 0.18/0.23 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8622 0.20/0.25 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8625 0.23/0.28 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8627 0.25/0.30 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8630 0.28/0.33 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8637 0.35/0.40 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8640 0.38/0.43 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8642 0.40/0.45 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8645 0.43/0.48 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8655 0.51/0.59 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.15/0.25
AISI 8720 0.18/0.23 0.70/0.90 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.20/0.30
AISI 8740 0.38/0.43 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.20/0.30
AISI 8822 0.20/0.25 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 0.20/0.35 0.40/0.70 0.40/0.60 0.30/0.40
AISI 9254 0.51/0.59 0.60/0.80 0.035 0.040 1.20/1.60 0.60/0.80
AISI 9255 0.51/0.59 0.70/0.95 0.035 0.040 1.80/2.20
AISI 9260 0.56/0.64 0.75/1.00 0.035 0.040 1.80/2.20

Grades shown in the above list with prefix letter E are normally made only by the basic electric furnace process. All others are normally manufactured by the basic open hearth or basic oxygen processes but may be manufactured by the basic electric furnace process with adjustments in phosphorus and sulphur.

Stainless Steel (A-182)

The elemental chemical composition of stainless steel is mainly composed of iron (FE) and chromium (CR). The chemical composition of other alloy elements also includes carbon (c), silicon (SI), manganese (MN), phosphorus (P), sulfur (s), nickel (Ni), molybdenum (MO), titanium (TI), nitrogen (n) and copper (Cu). Steel is corrosion resistant only when the percentage composition of chromium reaches a certain value. Therefore, the chromium content of stainless steel metal is generally at least 10.5%.
The following table lists the chemical composition of stainless steel alloys, including austenite SS 304, 304L 316, 316L, 321, 303, 302, 301, 904L, 201, martensite SS 440A, 440b, 440C, 420, ferrite SS 430, duplex stainless steel 2205, 2507, 329, etc.
Note: UOS (unless otherwise specified)

Stainless Steel Chemical Composition Chart, Percentage (%)
Stainless Steel C, ≤ Mn, ≤ P, ≤ S, ≤ Si, ≤ Cr Ni Mo N, ≤ Other Elements, ≤, UOS
304 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 18.0-20.0 8.0-11.0
304L 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 18.0-20.0 8.0-12.0
316 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.00-3.00
316L 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.00-3.00
321 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 9.0-12.0 0.10 ≥ Ti 5×(C+N), ≤ 0.70
201 0.15 5.50-7.50 0.06 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 3.5-5.5 0.25
202 0.15 7.50-10.00 0.06 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 4.0-6.0 0.25
205 0.12-0.25 14.0-15.5 0.06 0.03 1.00 16.5-18.0 1.0-1.7 0.32-0.40
301 0.15 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 6.0-8.0 0.10
301L 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 6.0-8.0 0.20
301LN 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 6.0-8.0 0.07-0.20
302 0.15 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.0-19.0 8.0-10.0 0.10
302B 0.15 2.00 0.045 0.03 2.00-3.00 17.0-19.0 8.0-10.0 0.10
303 0.15 2.00 0.2 ≥0.15 1.00 17.0-19.0 8.0-10.0
303Se 0.15 2.00 0.2 0.06 1.00 17.0-19.0 8.0-10.0 Se 0.15
304H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 18.0-20.0 8.0-10.5
304N 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 18.0-20.0 8.0-11.0 0.10-0.16
304LN 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 18.0-20.0 8.0-11.0 0.10-0.16
305 0.12 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 11.0-13.0
308 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 19.0-21.0 10.0-12.0
309 0.2 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 22.0-24.0 12.0-15.0
309S 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 22.0-24.0 12.0-15.0
309H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 22.0-24.0 12.0-15.0
309Cb 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 22.0-24.0 12.0-16.0 ≥ Cb 10 x C, ≤1.10
309HCb 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 22.0-24.0 12.0-16.0 ≥ Cb 10 x C, ≤1.10
310 0.25 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.5 24.0-26.0 19.0-22.0
310S 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.5 24.0-26.0 19.0-22.0
310H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 24.0-26.0 19.0-22.0
310Cb 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.5 24.0-26.0 19.0-22.0 ≥ Cb 10 x C, ≤ 1.10
310 MoLN 0.02 2.00 0.03 0.01 0.5 24.0-26.0 20.5-23.5 1.60-2.60 0.09-0.15
314 0.25 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.50-3.00 23.0-26.0 19.0-22.0
316H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.00-3.00
316Ti 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.00-3.00 0.1 ≥ Ti 5 × (C + N), ≤0.70
316Cb 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.00-3.00 0.1 ≥ Cb 10 × C, ≤ 1.10
316N 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.00-3.00 0.10-0.16
316LN 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 10.0-13.0 2.00-3.00 0.10-0.16
317 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 18.0-20.0 11.0-15.0 3.0-4.0 0.1
317L 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 18.0-20.0 11.0-15.0 3.0-4.0 0.1
317LM 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 18.0-20.0 13.5-17.5 4.0-5.0 0.2
317LMN 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.0-20.0 13.5-17.5 4.0-5.0 0.10-0.20
317LN 0.03 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 18.0-20.0 11.0-15.0 3.0-4.0 0.10-0.22
321 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 9.0-12.0 0.1 ≥ Ti 5 × (C + N), ≤ 0.70
321H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.0-19.0 9.0-12.0 ≥ Ti 4 × (C + N), ≤ 0.70
334 0.08 1.00 0.03 0.015 1.00 18.0-20.0 19.0-21.0 Al 0.15-0.60, Ti 0.15-0.60
347 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 9.0-12.0 ≥ Cb 10 × C, ≤ 1.00
347H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.0-19.0 9.0-13.0 ≥ Cb 8 × C, ≤ 1.00
347LN 0.005-0.020 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 9.0-13.0 0.06-0.10 Cb 0.20-0.50, 15 × C ≥
348 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 9.0-12.0 Cb 10×C-1.10, Ta 0.10, Co 0.20
348H 0.04-0.10 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.0-19.0 9.0-13.0 (Cb + Ta) 8×C ≥ , 1.00 ≤, Ta 0.10, Co 0.20
2205 0.03 2.00 0.03 0.02 1.00 22.0-23.0 4.5-6.5 3.0-3.5 0.14-0.20
2304 0.03 2.5 0.04 0.03 1.00 21.5-24.5 3.0-5.5 0.05-0.60 0.05-0.60
255 0.04 1.5 0.04 0.03 1.00 24.0-27.0 4.5-6.5 2.9-3.9 0.10-0.25 Cu 1.50-2.50
2507 0.03 1.2 0.035 0.02 0.8 24.0-26.0 6.0-8.0 3.0-5.0 0.24-0.32 Cu ≤0.50
329 0.08 1.00 0.04 0.03 0.75 23.0-28.0 2.0-5.00 1.00-2.00
403 0.15 1.00 0.04 0.03 0.5 11.5-13.0
405 0.08 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 11.5-14.5 0.5 Al 0.10-0.30
410 0.08-0.15 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 11.5-13.5
410S 0.08 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 11.5-13.5 0.6
414 0.15 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 11.5-13.5 1.25-2.50
416 0.15 1.25 0.06 ≥0.15 1.00 12.0-14.0
416Se 0.15 1.25 0.06 ≥0.06 1.00 12.0-14.0 Se 0.15
420 0.15, ≥ 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 12.0-14.0
420F 0.30-0.40 1.25 0.06 ≥0.15 1.00 12.0-14.0 0.5 Cu 0.60
420FSe 0.20-0.40 1.25 0.06 0.15 1.00 12.0-14.0 0.5 Se 0.15; Cu 0.60
422 0.20-0.25 0.50-1.00 0.025 0.025 0.5 11.0-12.5 0.50-1.00 0.90-1.25 V (0.20-0.30), W (0.90-1.25)
429 0.12 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 14.0-16.0
430 0.12 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0
430F 0.12 1.25 0.06 ≥0.15 1.00 16.0-18.0
430FSe 0.12 1.25 0.06 0.06 1.00 16.0-18.0 Se 0.15
439 0.03 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 17.0-19.0 0.5 0.03 ≥ Ti [0.20+4(C+N)], ≤ 1.10; Al 0.15
431 0.2 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 15.0-17.0 1.25-2.50
434 0.12 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 0.75-1.25
436 0.12 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 0.75-1.25 ≥ Cb 5×C, ≤ 0.80
440A 0.60-0.75 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 ≤0.75
440B 0.75-0.95 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 ≤0.75
440C 0.95-1.20 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 16.0-18.0 ≤0.75
440F 0.95-1.20 1.25 0.06 0.15 1.00 16.0-18.0 0.5 Cu ≤0.60
440FSe 0.95-1.20 1.25 0.06 0.06 1.00 16.0-18.0 0.5 Se ≤0.15; Cu ≤0.60
442 0.2 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.00 18.0-23.0 0.6
444 0.025 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 17.5-19.5 1.00 1.75-2.50 0.035 Ti+Cb 0.20+4 × (C+N)-0.80
446 0.2 1.5 0.04 0.03 1.00 23.0-27.0 0.75 0.25
800 0.1 1.5 0.045 0.015 1.00 19.0-23.0 30.0-35.0 Cu 0.75; ≥ FeH 39.5; Al 0.15-0.60
800H 0.05-0.10 1.5 0.045 0.015 1.00 19.0-23.0 30.0-35.0 Cu 0.75; ≥ FeH 39.5; Al 0.15-0.60
904L 0.02 2.00 0.045 0.035 1.00 19.0-23.0 23.0-28.0 4.00-5.00 0.1 Cu 1.00-2.00
Alloy 20 0.07 2.00 0.045 0.035 1.00 19.0-21.0 32.0-38.0 2.00-3.00 Cu 3.0-4.0; ≥ Nb 8 × C; ≤1.00
XM-1 0.08 5.0-6.5 0.04 0.18-0.35 1.00 16.00-18.0 5.0-6.5 Cu 1.75-2.25
XM-2 0.15 2.00 0.05 0.11-0.16 1.00 17.0-19.0 8.0-10.0 0.40-0.60 Al 0.60-1.00
XM-5 0.15 2.5-4.5 0.2 ≥0.25 1.00 17.0-19.0 7.0-10.0
XM-6 0.15 1.50-2.50 0.06 ≥0.15 1.00 12.0-14.0
XM-10 0.08 8.0-10.0 0.045 0.03 1.00 19.0-21.5 5.5-7.5 0.15-0.40
XM-11 0.04 8.0-10.0 0.045 0.03 1.00 19.0-21.5 5.5-7.5 0.15-0.40
XM-15 0.08 2.00 0.03 0.03 1.50-2.50 17.0-19.0 17.5-18.5
XM-17 0.08 7.50-9.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.5-22.0 5.0-7.0 2.00-3.00 0.25-0.50
XM-18 0.03 7.50-9.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 17.5-22.0 5.0-7.0 2.00-3.00 0.25-0.50
XM-19 0.06 4.0-6.0 0.045 0.03 1.00 20.5-23.5 11.5-13.5 1.50-3.00 0.20-0.40 Cb 0.10-0.30, V 0.10-0.30
XM-21 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.03 0.75 18.0-20.0 8.0-10.5 0.16-0.30
XM-27 0.01 0.4 0.02 0.02 0.4 25.0-27.5 0.5 0.75-1.50 0.015 Cu 0.20; Cb 0.05-0.20; (Ni + Cu) 0.50
XM-33 0.06 0.75 0.04 0.02 0.75 25.0-27.0 0.5 0.75-1.50 0.04 Cu 0.20; Ti 0.20-1.00; ≥ Ti 7(C+N)
XM-34 0.08 2.5 0.04 ≥0.15 1.00 17.5-19.5 1.50-2.50
PH 13-8Mo 0.05 0.2 0.01 0.008 0.1 12.25-13.25 7.5-8.5
15-5 PH 0.07 1 0.04 0.03 1 14.0-15.5 3.5-5.5 2.5-4.5 Cu; 0.15-0.45 Nb
17-4 PH 0.07 1 0.04 0.03 1 15.5-17.5 3.0-5.0 3.0-5.0 Cu; 0.15-0.45 Nb
17-7 PH 0.09 1 0.04 0.04 1 16.0-18.0 6.5-7.75 0.75-1.5 Al
Stainless Steel C, ≤ Mn, ≤ P, ≤ S, ≤ Si, ≤ Cr Ni Mo N, ≤ Other Elements, ≤, UOS

Low Alloy Steel (A-350)

Chemical Composition of Low Alloy Steel (A-350)

Chemical Composition of ASTM A182 Low Alloy Steels, %
ID. Symbol* C Mn P S Si Cr Mo Others
F1 0.28 0.60-0.90 0.045 0.045 0.15-0.35 0.44-0.65
F2 0.05-0.21 0.60-0.80 0.040 0.040 0.10-0.60 0.50-0.81 0.44-0.65
F5 0.15 0.30-0.60 0.030 0.030 0.50 4.0-6.0 0.44-0.65 *A
F5A 0.25 0.60 0.040 0.030 0.50 4.0-6.0 0.44-0.65 *B
F9 0.15 0.30-0.60 0.030 0.030 0.50-1.00 8.0-10.0 0.90-1.10
F10 0.10-0.12 0.50-0.80 0.040 0.030 1.00-1.40 7.0-9.0 *C
F91 0.08-0.12 0.30-0.60 0.020 0.010 0.20-0.50 8.0-9.5 0.85-1.05 *D
F92 0.07-0.13 0.30-0.60 0.020 0.010 0.50 8.5-9.5 0.30-0.60 *E
F122 0.07-0.14 0.70 0.020 0.010 0.50 10.00-11.50 0.25-0.60 *F
F911 0.09-0.13 0.30-0.60 0.020 0.010 0.10-0.50 8.5-9.5 0.90-1.10 *G
F11 CLASS1 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.030 0.030 0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44-0.65
F11 CLASS2 0.10-0.20 0.30-0.80 0.040 0.040 0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44-0.65
F11 CLASS3 0.10-0.20 0.30-0.80 0.040 0.040 0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44-0.65
F12 CLASS1 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.045 0.045 0.50 0.80-1.25 0.44-0.65
F12 CLASS2 0.10-0.20 0.30-0.80 0.040 0.040 0.10-0.60 0.80-1.25 0.44-0.65
F21 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.040 0.040 0.50 2.7-3.3 0.80-1.06
F3V 0.05-0.10 0.30-0.60 0.020 0.020 0.10 2.8-3.2 0.90-1.10 *H
F3VCb 0.10-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.020 0.010 0.10 2.7-3.3 0.90-1.10 *I
F22 CLASS1 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.040 0.040 0.50 2.00-2.50 0.87-1.13
F22 CLASS3 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.040 0.040 0.50 2.00-2.50 0.87-1.13
F22V 0.11-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.015 0.010 0.10 2.00-2.50 0.90-1.10 *J
F23 0.04-0.10 0.10-0.60 0.030 0.010 0.50 1.90-2.60 0.05-0.30 *K
F24 0.05-0.10 0.30-0.70 0.020 0.010 0.15-0.45 2.20-2.60 0.90-1.10 *L
FR 0.20 0.40-1.06 0.045 0.050 *M
F36 0.10-0.17 0.80-1.20 0.030 0.025 0.25-0.50 0.30 0.25-0.50 *N

*”ID.S” refers to the identification symbol of the grades stipulated by ASTM A182.
*All values are maximum unless a range is provided or otherwise specified.
*A – Ni:≤0.50; *B – Ni:≤0.50; *C – Ni:19-22;
*D – Ni:≤0.40,Co:0.06-0.10%,N:0.03-0.07,Al:≤0.02,V:0.18-0.25,T≤0.01%,Zr≤0.01.
*E – Ni:≤0.40,Co:0.04-0.09;V:0.15-0.25,N:0.030-0.070,Al:≤0.02,W:1.50-2.00,B:0.001-0.006,Ti&Zr:≤0.01.
*F – Ni:≤0.50,Co:0.04-0.10,V:0.15-0.30,B:≤0.005,N:0.04-0.10,Al:≤0.02,Cu:0.30-1.70,W:1.5-2.5,Ti&Zr:≤0.01.
*G – Ni:≤0.40,Co:0.06-0.10,W:0.90-1.10,Al:≤0.02,N:0.04-0.09,V:0.18-0.25,B:0.0003-0.006,Ti&Zr:≤0.01.
*H – Ti:0.015-0.035,V:0.20-0.30,B:0.001-0.003.
*I – Ni:≤0.25,Co:0.015-0.070,Ti:≤0.015,V:0.20-0.30,Cu:≤0.25,Ca:0.0005-0.0150.
*J – Ni:≤0.25,Co:≤0.07,Ti≤0.030,Cu≤0.20,V:0.25-0.35,B:≤0.002,Ca:≤0.015.
*K – Ni:≤0.40,Co:0.02-0.08,Ti:0.005-0.060,V:0.20-0.30,B:0.001-0.006,N:≤0.015,Al:≤0.030,W:1.45-1.75.
*L – Ti:0.06-0.10,V:0.20-0.30,N:≤0.12,Al:≤0.020,B:0.0015-0.0070
*M – Ni:1.60-2.24,Cu:0.75-1.25. *N – Ni:1.00-1.30,Co:0.015-0.045,N:≤0.20,Al:≤0.050,Cu:0.50-0.80,V:≤0.02.
*All chemical content values listed above from *A to *N shall be furnished with the unit of %.

Mechanical Properties of Low Alloy Steel (A-350)

Mechanical Properties of ASTM A182 Low Alloy Steels
Grade Tensile Strength
min. ksi[MPa]
Yield Strength
min. ksi[MPa]
Elongation, min. % Reduction of
Area, min. %
Brinell Hardness
Number, HBW
F1 70[485] 40[275] 20 30 143-192
F2 70[485] 40[275] 20 30 143-192
F5 70[485] 40[275] 20 35 143-217
F5a 90[620] 65[450] 22 50 187-248
F9 85[585] 55[380] 20 40 179-217
F10 80[550] 30[205] 30 50
F91 90[620] 60[415] 20 40 190-248
F92 90[620] 64[440] 20 45 ≤269
F122 90[620] 58[400] 20 40 ≤250
F911 90[620] 64[440] 18 40 187-248
F11 Class 1 60[415] 30[205] 20 45 121-174
F11 Class 2 70[485] 40[275] 20 30 143-207
F11 Class 3 75[515] 45[310] 20 30 156-207
F12 Class 1 60[415] 32[220] 20 45 121-174
F12 Class 2 70[485] 40[275] 20 30 143-207
F21 75[515] 45[310] 20 30 156-207
F3V & F3VCb 85-110[585-760] 60[415] 18 45 174-237
F22 Class 1 60[415] 30[205] 20 35 ≤170
F22 Class 3 75[515] 45[310] 20 30 156-207
F22V 85-110[585-780] 60[415] 18 45 174-237
F23 74[510] 58[400] 20 40 ≤220
F24 85[585] 60[415] 20 40 ≤248
FR 63[435] 46[315] 25 38 ≤197
F36 Class 1 90[620] 64[440] 15 ≤252
F36 Class 2 95.5[660] 66.5[460] 15 ≤252

Heat Treatment of Low Alloy Steel (A-350)

Heat Treatment of ASTM A182 Alloy Steels
Grade Heat Treatment Process
F1 Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1150°F[620°C].
F2 Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1150°F[620°C].
F5, F5a Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1750°F[955°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1250°F[675°C].
F9 Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1750°F[955°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1250°F[675°C].
F10 Type: solution treat and quench; Minimum solutioning temperature:1900°F[1040°C]; Cooling media: liquid; Quenching cool below: 500°F[260°C]
F91 Type: normalize and temper; Temperature range of austenitizing/solutioning:1900-1975°F[1040-1080°C]; air cool; Temperature range of tempering: 1350-1470°F[730-800°C].
F92 Type: normalize and temper; Temperature range of austenitizing/solutioning:1900-1975°F[1040-1080°C]; air cool; Temperature range of tempering: 1350-1470°F[730-800°C].
F122 Type: normalize and temper; Temperature range of austenitizing/solutioning:1900-1975°F[1040-1080°C]; air cool; Temperature range of tempering: 1350-1470°F[730-800°C].
F911 Type: normalize and temper; Temperature range of austenitizing/solutioning:1900-1975°F[1040-1080°C]; air or liquid cool; Temperature range of tempering: 1365-1435°F[740-780°C].
F11 Class 1, 2, 3 Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1150°F[620°C].
F12 Class 1, 2 Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1150°F[620°C].
F21, F3V, F3VCb Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1750°F[955°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1250°F[675°C].
F22, Class 1, 3 Type: anneal, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:furnace or air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1250°F[675°C].
F22V Type: normalize and temper, or quench and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature: 1650°F[900°F]; air or liquid cool; Minimum tempering temperature: 1250°F[675°C].
F23 Type: normalize and temper; Temperature range of austenitizing/solutioning:1900-1975°F[1040-1080°C]; air cool; Temperature range of tempering: 1350-1470°F[730-800°C].
F24 Type: normalize and temper; Temperature range of austenitizing/solutioning:1800-1975°F[980-1080°C]; air or liquid cool; Temperature range of tempering: 1350-1470°F[730-800°C].
FR Type: anneal, or normalize, or normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature: 1750°F[955°C]; air or furnace cool; Minimum tempering temperature: 1250°F[675°C].
F36 Class 1 Type: normalize and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:air cool; Minimum tempering temperature:1100°F[595°C].
F36 Class 2 Type: normalize and temper, or quench and temper; Minimum austenitizing/solutioning temperature:1650°F[900°C]; Cooling media:air cool or liquid; Minimum tempering temperature:1100°F[595°C].

*After hot working, the ASTM A182 low alloy steel forings shall be cooled to a temperature below 1000°F[538°C] prior to heat treatment.

Typical Steel Grades, UNS designation, and Steel Names of Low Alloy Steel (A-350)

Steel Grades UNS Designation Steel Names
ASTM A182 F1 K12822 C-0.5Mo
ASTM A182 F2 K12122 0.5Cr-0.5Mo
ASTM A182 F5 K41545 5Cr-0.5Mo
ASTM A182 F5a K42544 5Cr-0.5Mo
ASTM A182 F9 K90941 9Cr-1Mo
ASTM A182 F10 S33100 20Ni-8Cr
ASTM A182 F91 K90901 9Cr-1Mo-V
ASTM A182 F92 K92460 9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W-V
ASTM A182 F11 CL1 K11597 1.25Cr–0.5Mo–Si
ASTM A182 F11 CL2 K11572 1.25Cr–0.25Mo–Si
ASTM A182 F11 CL3 K11572 1.25Cr–0.5Mo–Si
ASTM A182 F12 CL1 K11562 1Cr-0.5Mo
ASTM A182 F12 CL2 K11564 1Cr-0.5Mo
ASTM A182 F22 CL1 K21590 2.25Cr-1Mo
ASTM A182 F22 CL3 K21590 2.25Cr-1Mo
ASTM A182 F21 K31545 3Cr-1Mo
ASTM A182 F122 K91271
ASTM A182 F911 K91061
ASTM A182 F3V K31830
ASTM A182 F3VCb K31390
ASTM A182 F22V K31835 2.25Cr-1Mo-V
ASTM A182 F23 K41650
ASTM A182 F24 K30736 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V-Ti-B
ASTM A182 FR K22035
ASTM A182 F36 K21001 1.15Ni-0.65Cu-Mo-Co

Duplex Stainless Steel

Duplex Stainless Steel Chemical Composition

Type

Example grades

Composition

PREN

Cr%

Ni%

Mo%

N%

Lean

S31500, S32304, S32404

20-24

1-5

0.1-0.3

0.1-0.22

24-25

Standard

S31803, S32205

21-23

4.5-6

2.5-3.5

0.1-0.22

33-35

Super-duplex

S32520, S32550, S32750

24-29

4.5-8

2.7-4.5

0.1-0.35

>40

Hyper-duplex

S32707, S33207

27

6.5

5

0.4

49

Cooper Nickel

The most common copper-nickel alloys being 90/10 cupronickel and 70/30 cupronickel, the chemical composition of both are given below.

90/10 Cupronickel

Copper 86 – 89.7%
Nickel 9.0 – 11.0%
Iron 1.0 – 2.0%
Manganese 0.3 – 1.0%

70/30 Cupronickel

Copper 70.1 – 65.5%
Nickel 29.0 – 32.0%
Iron 0.5 – 1.5%
Manganese 0.4 – 1.0%

How Many Types of Socket Weld Pipe Fittings

20220624105859 39057 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

The varieties of socket pipe fittings include 45 ° SW elbow, 90 ° SW elbow, SW tee, SW cross, 45 ° reducing tee, double socket pipe hoop, single socket pipe hoop, SW cap, SW union, branch pipe seat, etc. Among them, tee and cross can be divided into equal diameter and different diameter; Double socket pipe hoops can also be divided into equal diameter and different diameter, and the different diameter double socket pipe hoops can also be divided into concentric and eccentric.

Types of socket weld fittings by class, size and wall thickness

Description Class Designation
3000 6000 9000
Elbows 45 and 90 degrees, Tees, Crosses, Couplings, Half-Couplings, End or Pipe Caps 1/2 – 4 1/2 – 2 1/2 – 2
1/2 – 4 1/2 – 2 1/2 – 2
1/2 – 4 1/2 – 2 1/2 – 2
Pipe Size
by Wall Thickness
SCH 80
XS
SCH 160 XXS

Plugs and Bushings are not identified. They may be used up through Class 6000 NPS.

Socket Weld Couplings

The varieties of socket pipe couplings include full-couplings and half-couplings. Among them, the full-coupling has equal and different diameter, and the full-coupling of different diameter has concentric and eccentric points.
The socket and socket are located at the two ends of the bending part; compared with the existing technology, the design is reasonable, simple and practical, improving the quality and convenience of operation.
The socket pipe coupling can be widely used for different caliber pipes, including single pass, tee, cross, etc., and also for water meter and valve. Due to the socket structure, it makes the pipe joint reduce the cost, installation, use and maintenance extremely convenient, and also has a very high leak-proof ability.

Full-coupling

20220624111134 28091 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Forged socket welded full-couplings are available in three grades of 3000 pounds, 6000 pounds and 9000 pounds, and their specifications comply with ASME B16.11 and EN10241 standards.

Half-coupling

20220624112508 61797 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

The half coupling could be directly welded to the run pipe in order to make a branch connection.

SW couplings provide sealed and stable connections for pipes of different sizes. They are irreplaceable in the medium, high temperature and high pressure conditions of small diameter pipeline systems.

Dimensions of Socket Weld Couplings ASME B16.11
20220624111348 51396 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 3000

NPS Socket Bore Depth Socket Bore DIA Socket wall THK
B J D C
1/2 21.95
21.70
10 16.6
15
4.65
4.10
3/4 27.30
27.05
13 21.7
20.2
4.90
4.25
1 34.05
33.80
13 27.4
25.9
5.70
5.00
1.1/4 42.80
42.55
13 35.8
34.3
6.05
5.30
1.1/2 48.90
48.65
13 41.7
40.1
6.35
5.55
2 61.35
61.10
16 53.5
51.7
6.95
6.05
2.1/2 74.20
73.80
16 64.2
61.2
8.75
7.65
3 90.15
89.80
16 79.5
46.4
9.50
8.30
4 115.80
115.45
19 103.8
100.7
10.70
9.35
NPS Laying lengths
Coupling
E
Half coupling
F
1/2 9.5 22.5
3/4 9.5 23.5
1 13 29
1.1/4 13 30
1.1/2 13 32
2 19 41
2.1/2 19 42.5
3 19 44.5
4 19 47.5

20220624111348 51396 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 6000

NPS Socket Bore Depth Socket Bore DIA Socket wall THK
B J D C
1/2 21.95
21.70
10 12.5
11
5.95
5.20
3/4 27.30
27.05
13 16.3
14.8
6.95
6.05
1 34.05
33.80
13 21.5
19.9
7.90
6.95
1.1/4 42.80
42.55
13 30.2
28.7
7.90
6.95
1.1/2 48.90
48.65
13 34.7
33.2
8.90
7.80
2 61.35
61.10
16 43.6
42.1
10.90
9.50
NPS Laying lengths
Coupling
E
Half coupling
F
1/2 9.5 22.5
3/4 9.5 23.5
1 13 29
1.1/4 13 30
1.1/2 13 32
2 19 41

General notes..

  • Dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated.
  • Socket Bore (B) – Maximum and Minimum dimensions.
  • Bore Diameter (D) – Maximum and Minimum dimensions.
  • Socket wall thickness – (C) – Average of Socket wall thickness.
  • Dimensional tolerances laying lengths – (E & F)
    NPS 1/2 and NPS 3/4 = +/- 1.5 mm
    NPS 1 to NPS 2 = +/- 2 mm
    NPS 2.1/2 to NPS 4 = +/- 2.5 mm

Reducing coupling

20220624114455 22699 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

The reducing coupling helps to join two different outside diameters of a pipe.

Dimensions of Socket Weld Reducing Couplings ASME B16.11

20220624114622 96710 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 3000

NPS Socket Bore Depth
Socket
J
Bore dia
B1 B2 B1 B2 D
3/4
1/2
27.30
27.05
21.95
21.70
13 10 16.6
15
1
3/4
34.05
33.80
27.30
27.05
13 13 21.7
20.2
1
1/2
34.05
33.80
21.95
21.70
13 10 16.6
15
1.1/4
1
42.80
42.55
34.05
33.80
13 13 27.4
25.9
1.1/2
1
48.90
48.65
34.05
33.80
13 13 27.4
25.9
1.1/2
3/4
48.90
48.65
27.30
27.05
13 13 21.7
20.2
1.1/2
1/2
48.90
48.65
21.95
21.70
13 10 16.6
15
2
1.1/2
61.35
61.10
48.90
48.65
16 13 41.7
40.1
2
1
74.20
73.80
34.05
33.80
16 13 27.4
25.9
NPS Length Coupling Diameter
Coupling
Q R
3/4
1/2
35 36
1
3/4
38.1 45.2
1
1/2
38.1 45.2
1.1/4
1
38.1 55.1
1.1/2
1
38.1 60
1.1/2
3/4
38.1 60
1.1/2
1/2
38.1 60
2
1.1/2
51.3 74.9
2
1
51.3 74.9

20220624114622 96710 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 6000

NPS Socket Bore Depth
Socket
J
Bore dia
B1 B2 B1 B2 D
3/4
1/2
27.30
27.05
21.95
21.70
13 10 12.5
11
1
3/4
34.05
33.80
27.30
27.05
13 13 16.3
14.8
1
1/2
34.05
33.80
21.95
21.70
13 10 12.5
11
1.1/4
1
42.80
42.55
34.05
33.80
13 13 21.5
19.9
1.1/2
1
48.90
48.65
34.05
33.80
13 13 21.5
19.9
1.1/2
3/4
48.90
48.65
27.30
27.05
13 13 16.3
14.8
1.1/2
1/2
48.90
48.65
21.95
21.70
13 10 12.5
11
2
1.1/2
61.35
61.10
48.90
48.65
16 13 34.7
33.2
2
1
74.20
73.80
34.05
33.80
16 13 21.5
19.9
NPS Length Coupling Diameter
Coupling
Q R
3/4
1/2
35 40.1
1
3/4
38.1 50
1
1/2
38.1 50
1.1/4
1
38.1 57.9
1.1/2
1
38.1 65
1.1/2
3/4
38.1 65
1.1/2
1/2
38.1 65
2
1.1/2
51.3 82
2
1
51.3 82

General notes..

  • Dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated.
  • Socket Bore (B1 / B2) – Maximum and Minimum dimensions.
  • Bore Diameter (D) – Maximum and Minimum dimensions.

Reducer insert

20220624115452 33190 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

The reducer inserts have been manufactured according to MSS SP-79. It helps to enable economic and quick combinations of pipeline reductions. As such, these could be made by using standard socket weld fittings.

Dimensions of Reducer Insert ASME B16.11

asme b16.11 socket weld reducer insert dimensions - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 3000 Class 6000 Class 9000
Nominal Pipe Size C D
Fitting

Type

A B E
Fitting

Type

A B E
Fitting

Type

A B E
3/8 x 1/4 0.675 0.555 1 7/16 3/4 15/16 1 7/16 7/8 1
1/2 x 3/8 0.850 0.690 1 7/16 13/16 1 1/16 1 7/16 15/16 1 3/16
1/2 x 1/4 0.850 0.555 1 7/16 13/16 15/16 1 7/16 7/8 1
3/4 x 1/2 1.060 0.855 1 7/16 7/8 1 5/16 1 7/16 1 1/16 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 3/16 1 3/4
3/4 x 3/8 1.060 0.690 2 7/16 5/8 1 7/16 7/8 1 3/16
3/4 x 1/4 1.060 0.555 2 3/8 11/16 2 3/8 7/8
1 x 3/4 1.325 1.065 1 9/16 15/16 1 1/2 1 9/16 1 1/8 1 11/16 1 9/16 1 1/4 2
1 x 1/2 1.325 0.855 2 1/2 5/8 1 7/16 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 1/8 1 3/4
1 x 3/8 1.325 0.690 2 7/16 11/16 2 1/2 7/8
1 x 1/4 1.325 0.555 2 3/8 3/4 2 3/8 15/16
1 1/4 x 1 1.670 1.330 1 9/16 1 1 7/8 1 9/16 1 3/16 2 1 9/16 1 3/8 2 3/8
1 1/4 x 3/4 1.670 1.065 2 9/16 11/16 2 9/16 13/16 1 9/16 1 3/16 2
1 1/4 x 1/2 1.670 0.855 2 1/2 3/4 2 1/2 7/8 2 1/2 7/8
1 1/4 x 3/8 1.670 0.690 2 7/16 13/16 2 7/16 15/16
1 1/4 x 1/4 1.670 0.555 2 3/8 7/8 2 3/8 1
1 1/2 x 1 1/4 1.910 1.675 1 9/16 1 1/8 2 1/4 1 9/16 1 3/8 2 3/8 1 9/16 1 5/8 2 3/4
1 1/2 x 1 1.910 1.330 2 5/8 11/16 1 9/16 1 3/16 2 1 9/16 1 3/8 2 3/8
1 1/2 x 3/4 1.910 1.065 2 9/16 3/4 2 9/16 1 2 9/16 1
1 1/2 x 1/2 1.910 0.855 2 1/2 13/16 2 1/2 1 1/16 2 9/16 1
1 1/2 x 3/8 1.910 0.690 2 7/16 7/8 2 7/16 1 1/8
2 x 1 1/2 2.385 1.915 1 9/16 1 1/4 2 1/2 1 9/16 1 7/8 2 11/16 1 9/16 2 1/16 3
2 x 1 1/4 2.385 1.675 2 11/16 13/16 2 7/8 15/16 1 9/16 2 2 3/4
2 x 1 2.385 1.330 2 5/8 7/8 2 13/16 1 2 13/16 1
2 x 3/4 2.385 1.065 2 9/16 15/16 2 3/4 1 1/16 2 3/4 1 1/16
2 x 1/2 2.385 0.855 2 1/2 1 2 11/16 1 1/8 2 11/16 1 1/8

Socket Weld Union

20220624115913 13885 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Union is a common pipe connector that can be easily installed and disassembled. It is mainly composed of nut, cloud head and flat connection.

Dimensions of Socket Weld Union ASME B16.11

asme b 16.11 socketweld fitting union dimensions - What are socket weld pipe fittings
Nominal Diameter

Outside Diameter

Wall Thickness

Socket Bore

Water way Bore

Depth of Socket

Length Assem
Nominal
Dmin
Cmin
d1
d2
Jmin
L
DN
NPS

Socket

Threaded
Socket
Threaded
Socket

Socket & Threaded
Socket
Socket & Threaded
6
1/8
21.8
14.7
3.2
2.5
10.65
6.43
10
41.4
8
1/4
21.8
19.0
3.3
3.1
14.10
9.45
10
41.4
10
3/8
25.9
22.9
3.5
3.2
17.55
13.51
10
46.0
15
1/2
31.2
27.7
4.1
3.8
21.70
17.07
10
49.0
20
3/4
37.1
33.5
4.3
4.0
27.05
21.39
13
56.9
25
1
45.5
41.4
5.0
4.6
33.80
27.74
13
62.0
32
11/4
54.9
50.5
5.3
4.9
42.55
35.36
13
71.1
40
11/2
61.5
57.2
5.6
5.1
48.65
41.20

13

76.5
50
2
75.2
70.1
6.1
5.6
61.10
52.12
16
86.1
65
21/2
91.7
85.3
7.7
7.1
73.80
64.31
16
102.4
80
3
109.2
102.4
8.4
7.7
89.80
77.27
16
109.0

Socket Weld Elbow

Socket weld elbow (SW elbow) has 45 degree and 90 degree types, manufactured in forging processes and also has long radius (LR with 1.5 X OD) and short radius (SR with 1 X 0D) model, it has been a common socket weld fittings that used in the pipelines for changing the fluid directions.

According to common standards, the specifications of socket elbows include DN6, DN8, DN10, DN15, DN20, DN25, DN32, DN40, DN50, DN65, DN80 and DN100. The commonly used ordering specification is dn15—dn50. If the specification is beyond the scope, the design and processing of drawings can be communicated with customers.
According to pressure grade: 3000LB, 6000LB, 9000LB or SCH80, SCH160, XXS

Dimensions of Socket Weld Elbow ASME B16.11

20220624121107 24929 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 3000

NPS Socket Bore Depth Socket Bore DIA Socket WT Body WT
B J D C G
1/2 21.95
21.70
10 16.6
15
4.65
4.10
3.75
3/4 27.30
27.05
13 21.7
20.2
4.90
4.25
3.90
1 34.05
33.80
13 27.4
25.9
5.70
5.00
4.55
1.1/4 42.80
42.55
13 35.8
34.3
6.05
5.30
4.85
1.1/2 48.90
48.65
13 41.7
40.1
6.35
5.55
5.10
2 61.35
61.10
16 53.5
51.7
6.95
6.05
5.55
2.1/2 74.20
73.80
16 64.2
61.2
8.75
7.65
7.00
3 90.15
89.80
16 79.5
46.4
9.50
8.30
7.60
4 115.80
115.45
19 103.8
100.7
10.70
9.35
8.55
NPS Center to bottom of socket
A
90° 45°
1/2 15.5 11.5
3/4 19.5 12.5
1 22 14
1.1/4 27 17
1.1/2 32 21
2 38 25
2.1/2 41.5 29
3 57.5 31.5
4 66.5 41.5

20220624121107 24929 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 6000

NPS Socket Bore Depth Socket Bore DIA Socket WT Body WT
B J D C G
1/2 21.95
21.70
10 12.5
11
5.95
5.20
4.80
3/4 27.30
27.05
13 16.3
14.8
6.95
6.05
5.55
1 34.05
33.80
13 21.5
19.9
7.90
6.95
6.35
1.1/4 42.80
42.55
13 30.2
28.7
7.90
6.95
6.35
1.1/2 48.90
48.65
13 34.7
33.2
8.90
7.80
7.15
2 61.35
61.10
16 43.6
42.1
10.90
9.50
8.75
NPS Center to bottom of socket
A
90° 45°
1/2 19.5 12.5
3/4 22.5 14.5
1 27 17
1.1/4 32 21
1.1/2 38 25
2 41 29

General notes..

  • Dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated.
  • Socket Bore (B) – Maximum and minimum dimensions.
  • Bore Diameter (D) – Maximum and minimum dimensions.
  • Socket wall thickness – (C) – Average of Socket wall thickness.
  • Dimensional tolerances center to bottom of socket – (A)
    NPS 1/2 and NPS 3/4 = +/- 1.5 mm
    NPS 1 to NPS 2 = +/- 2 mm
    NPS 2.1/2 to NPS 4 = +/- 2.5 mm

Socket weld Tee (SW Tee)

Tee Straight and Reducing Tee

This would help to make a ninety degree branch from the main run of the pipe. Socket weld reducing tee is with a smaller diameter branch which connecting the smaller pipe branch.

Socket Weld Cross (SW Cross)

The socket weld cross would also help to make a ninety degree branch from the main run of the pipe.

Dimensions of Socket Weld Tees & Crosses ASME B16.11

20220624122120 61717 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 3000

NPS Socket Bore Depth Socket Bore dia
B J D
1/2 21.95
21.70
10 16.6
15
3/4 27.30
27.05
13 21.7
20.2
1 34.05
33.80
13 27.4
25.9
1.1/4 42.80
42.55
13 35.8
34.3
1.1/2 48.90
48.65
13 41.7
40.1
2 61.35
61.10
16 53.5
51.7
2.1/2 74.20
73.80
16 64.2
61.2
3 90.15
89.80
16 79.5
46.4
4 115.80
115.45
19 103.8
100.7
NPS Socket
WT
Body
WT
Center to bottom of socket
C G A
1/2 4.65
4.10
3.75 15.5
3/4 4.90
4.25
3.90 19.5
1 5.70
5.00
4.55 22
1.1/4 6.05
5.30
4.85 27
1.1/2 6.35
5.55
5.10 32
2 6.95
6.05
5.55 38
2.1/2 8.75
7.65
7.00 41.5
3 9.50
8.30
7.60 57.5
4 10.70
9.35
8.55 66.5
20220624122120 61717 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 6000

NPS Socket Bore Depth Socket Bore dia
B J D
1/2 21.95
21.70
10 12.5
11
3/4 27.30
27.05
13 16.3
14.8
1 34.05
33.80
13 21.5
19.9
1.1/4 42.80
42.55
13 30.2
28.7
1.1/2 48.90
48.65
13 34.7
33.2
2 61.35
61.10
16 43.6
42.1
NPS Socket
WT
Body
WT
Center to bottom of socket
C G A
1/2 5.95
5.20
4.80 19.5
3/4 6.95
6.05
5.55 22.5
1 7.90
6.95
6.35 27
1.1/4 7.90
6.95
6.35 32
1.1/2 8.90
7.80
7.15 38
2 10.90
9.50
8.75 41

General notes..

  • Dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated.
  • Socket Bore (B) – Maximum and minimum dimensions.
  • Bore Diameter (D) – Maximum and minimum dimensions.
  • Socket wall thickness – (C) – Average of Socket wall thickness.
  • Dimensional tolerances center to bottom of socket – (A)
    NPS 1/2 and NPS 3/4 = +/- 1.5 mm
    NPS 1 to NPS 2 = +/- 2 mm
    NPS 2.1/2 to NPS 4 = +/- 2.5 mm

Sockolet

Sockolet (sock + olet) is a typical type of socket weld pipe fittings, it is used for the same purposes as weldolet and threadolet, to weld a small diameter pipe to sit in a big diameter pipe body. Different that is sockolet has a unique socket that suitable for the welding (the socket is inside the olet). It provides a good 90 degree turn and higher strength for to take high pressures. One bore connected with the outlet bore, the counter bore will span the OD of the outlet to support the pipe sit on the socket, to stable the installation and welding strength. Same as socket pipe fittings, sockolets have pressure ranges in 3000#, 6000# and 9000#.

Dimensions of Sockolet ASME B16.11

20220624122828 61495 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 3000 Sockolet Dimensions

Size in Inches A B C D E Weight in KG
1/8 19.05 25.40 15.88 6.83 7.14 0.05
1/4 19.05 25.40 15.88 9.25 7.14 0.05
3/8 20.64 31.75 19.05 12.52 11.11 0.09
1/2 25.40 35.72 23.02 15.80 14.29 0.14
3/4 26.99 43.66 29.37 20.93 14.29 0.16
1 33.34 50.80 36.51 26.64 19.84 0.27
1 1/4 33.34 65.09 44.45 35.05 19.05 0.39
1 1/2 34.93 72.23 50.80 40.89 19.05 0.45
2 38.10 88.11 65.09 52.50 20.64 0.73
2 1/2 39.69 103.19 76.20 62.71 19.05 1.25
3 44.45 122.24 93.66 77.93 23.81 1.72
3 1/2 53.98 132.56 101.60 90.12 25.40 1.95
4 47.63 151.61 120.65 102.26 26.99 3.29
5 66.68 185.74 141.29 128.19 34.13 5.44
6 69.85 219.08 169.86 154.05 35.72 6.58

Class 6000 Sockolet Dimensions

Size in Inches A B C D E Weight in KG
1/2 31.75 43.66 19.05 11.84 22.23 0.23
3/4 36.51 49.61 25.40 15.60 22.23 0.36
1 39.69 61.91 33.34 20.70 23.81 0.59
1 1/4 41.28 69.06 38.10 29.46 20.64 0.73
1 1/2 42.86 82.55 49.21 33.99 22.23 0.91
2 52.39 102.39 69.85 42.90 30.16 2.34

Size on Size Class 3000 Dimensions

Size in Inches A B C D E Weight in KG
1/2 25.40 34.93 23.81 15.80 13.49 0.07
3/4 26.99 41.28 30.16 20.93 11.91 0.11
1 33.34 50.80 36.51 26.64 18.26 0.20
1 1/4 33.34 60.33 44.45 35.05 14.29 0.29
1 1/2 34.93 73.03 50.80 40.89 16.67 0.39
2 38.10 88.90 65.09 52.50 23.81 0.64
2 1/2 39.69 103.19 76.20 62.71 19.05 1.02
3 44.45 122.24 93.66 77.93 23.81 1.70
3 1/2 42.86 136.53 112.71 90.12 17.46 1.95
4 47.63 153.99 120.65 102.26 26.99 2.99
5 61.91 184.15 133.35 128.19 25.40 4.08
6 68.26 220.66 153.99 154.05 30.16 7.03

All Dimensions are in millimetre (mm)

Socket Weld Cap (SW Cap)

Socket weld cap is the end cap. It is used to seal the end of the pipe.

Dimensions of Socket Weld Cap ASME B16.11

20220624123623 52172 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

DN Nom. Socket Bore Dia.Of Fitting Socket Wall Thickness Laying Lengths Depth of End Wall Thickness
Pipe Bore D C Coupling Half Socket Min.
Size Dia.   Class Designation E Coupling Min. K
  B Class Designation 3000 6000 9000   F J Class Designation
    3000 6000 9000 Ave. Min. Ave. Min. Ave. Min.       3000 6000 9000
6 1/8″ 10.8 6.9 4 3.18 3.18 3.96 3.43 6.5 16 9.5 4.8 6.4
8 1/4″ 14.2 9.3 6.4 3.78 3.3 4.6 4.01 6.5 16 9.5 4.8 6.4
10 3/8″ 17.6 12.6 9.2 4.01 3.5 5.03 4.37 6.5 17.5 9.5 4.8 6.4
15 1/2″ 21.8 15.8 11.8 6.4 4.67 4.09 5.97 5.18 9.35 8.18 9.5 22.5 9.5 6.4 7.9 11.2
20 3/4″ 27.2 21 15.6 11.1 4.9 4.27 6.96 6.04 9.78 8.56 9.5 24 12.5 6.4 7.9 12.7
25 1″ 33.9 26.7 20.7 15.2 5.69 4.98 7.92 6.93 11.38 9.96 12.5 28.5 12.5 9.6 11.2 14.2
32 1-1/4″ 42.7 35.1 29.5 22.8 6.07 5.28 7.92 6.93 12.14 10.62 12.5 30 12.5 9.6 11.2 14.2
40 1-1/2″ 48.8 40.9 34 28 6.35 5.54 8.92 7.8 12.7 11.12 12.5 32 12.5 11.2 12.7 15.7
50 2″ 61.2 52.5 42.9 38.2 6.93 6.04 10.92 9.5 13.84 12.12 19 41 16 12.7 15.7 19
65 2-1/2″ 73.9 62.7 8.76 7.67 19 43 16 15.7 19
80 3″ 89.8 78 9.52 8.3 19 44.5 16 19 22.4
100 4″ 115.2 102.3 10.69 9.35 19 48 19 22.4 28.4
  • Dimensions in Millimeters.
  • Average of socket wall thickness around periphery shall be no less than listed values. The minimum values are permitted in localized areas.
  • Reducer: C,J,E in accordance with large size.D in accordance with small size. The others in accordance with each size.

Socket Weld Flange – Another SW fittings

Socket weld flange (SW flange) generally used for the smaller pipes with high pressure. The flange shape is consist of a recessed shoulder at the inner bore, which leads the pipe to insert in the shoulder correctly, then do the welding work to connect the pipes and flanges. This welding structural essentially providing a smooth bore and a good transmission performances for the liquid in the pipelines.

SW flanges have a recessed shoulder on the inner diameter which allows the pipe to be fitted correctly. These fittings are typically used for small diameter pipes and can work at higher pressures, offering excellent flow characteristics. There are a number of different SW flange designs, including flat and raised face versions, each with their own pressure ratings.

SW flanges includes RF (Raised Face), FF (Flat Face) or RTJ face (Ring Tenon Joint) type, pressure ratings classified in 150#, 300#, 600# and up to 2500#.

Dimensions of Socket Weld Flanges ASME B16.5

20220624124711 66106 - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Class 150 Socket Neck Flange Dimensions

Size in Inch Size in mm Outer Dia. Flange Thick. Hub OD Flange Length RF Dia. RF Height Socket Depth PCD Socket Bore No of Bolts Bolt Size UNC Machine Bolt Length RF Stud Length Hole Size ISO Stud Size Weight in kg
A B C D E F G H J
1/2 15 90 9.6 30 14 34.9 2 10 60.3 22.2 4 1/2 50 55 5/8 M14 0.8
3/4 20 100 11.2 38 14 42.9 2 11 69.9 27.7 4 1/2 50 65 5/8 M14 0.9
1 25 110 12.7 49 16 50.8 2 13 79.4 34.5 4 1/2 55 65 5/8 M14 0.9
1 1/4 32 115 14.3 59 19 63.5 2 14 88.9 43.2 4 1/2 55 70 5/8 M14 1.4
1 1/2 40 125 15.9 65 21 73 2 16 98.4 49.5 4 1/2 65 70 5/8 M14 1.4
2 50 150 17.5 78 24 92.1 2 17 120.7 61.9 4 5/8 70 85 3/4 M16 2.3
2 1/2 65 180 20.7 90 27 105 2 19 139.7 74.6 4 5/8 75 90 3/4 M16 3.2
3 80 190 22.3 108 29 127 2 21 152.4 90.7 4 5/8 75 90 3/4 M16 3.7

Class 300 Socket Neck Flange Dimensions

Size in Inch Size in mm Outer Dia. Flange Thick. Hub OD Flange Length RF Dia. RF Height Socket Depth PCD Socket Bore No of Bolts Bolt Size UNC Machine Bolt Length RF Stud Length Hole Size ISO Stud Size Weight in kg
A B C D E F G H J
1/2 15 95 12.7 38 21 34.9 2 10 66.7 22.2 4 1/2 55 65 5/8 M14 1.2
3/4 20 115 14.3 48 24 42.9 2 11 82.6 27.7 4 5/8 65 75 3/4 M16 1.4
1 25 125 15.9 54 25 50.8 2 13 88.9 34.5 4 5/8 65 75 3/4 M16 1.4
1 1/4 32 135 17.5 64 25 63.5 2 14 98.4 43.2 4 5/8 70 85 3/4 M16 1.8
1 1/2 40 155 19.1 70 29 73 2 16 114.3 49.5 4 3/4 75 90 7/8 M20 2.7
2 50 165 20.7 84 32 92.1 2 17 127 61.9 8 5/8 75 90 3/4 M16 3.2
2 1/2 65 190 23.9 100 37 105 2 19 149.2 74.6 8 3/4 85 100 7/8 M20 4.6
3 80 210 27 117 41 127 2 21 168.3 90.7 8 3/4 90 110 7/8 M20 5.9

Class 600 Socket Neck Flange Dimensions

Size in Inch Size in mm Outer Dia. Flange Thick. Hub OD Flange Length RF Dia. RF Height Socket Depth PCD Socket Bore No of Bolts Bolt Size UNC RF Stud Length Hole Size ISO Stud Size Weight in kg
A B C D E F G H J
1/2 15 95 14.3 38 22 34.9 7 10 66.7 22.2 4 1/2 75 5/8 M14 1.3
3/4 20 115 15.9 48 25 42.9 7 11 82.6 27.7 4 5/8 90 3/4 M16 1.4
1 25 125 17.5 54 27 50.8 7 13 88.9 34.5 4 5/8 90 3/4 M16 1.8
1 1/4 32 135 20.7 64 29 63.5 7 14 98.4 43.2 4 5/8 95 3/4 M16 2.3
1 1/2 40 155 22.3 70 32 73 7 16 114.3 49.5 4 3/4 110 7/8 M20 3.2
2 50 165 25.4 84 37 92.1 7 17 127 61.9 8 5/8 110 3/4 M16 4.1
2 1/2 65 190 28.6 100 41 105 7 19 149.2 74.6 8 3/4 120 7/8 M20 5.9
3 80 210 31.8 117 46 127 7 21 168.3 90.7 8 3/4 125 7/8 M20 7.3

Class 1500 Socket Neck Flange Dimensions

Size in Inch Size in mm Outer Dia. Flange Thick. Hub OD Flange Length RF Dia. RF Height Socket Depth PCD Socket Bore No of Bolts Bolt Size UNC RF Stud Length Hole Size ISO Stud Size Weight in kg
A B C D E F G H J
1/2 15 120 22.3 38 32 34.9 7 10 82.6 22.2 4 3/4 110 7/8 M20 1.8
3/4 20 130 25.4 44 35 42.9 7 11 88.9 27.7 4 3/4 115 7/8 M20 2.3
1 25 150 28.6 52 41 50.8 7 13 101.6 34.5 4 7/8 125 1 M24 3.7
1 1/4 32 160 28.6 64 41 63.5 7 14 111.1 43.2 4 7/8 125 1 M24 4.1
1 1/2 40 180 31.8 70 44 73 7 16 123.8 49.5 4 1 140 1 1/8 M27 5.5
2 50 215 38.1 105 57 92.1 7 17 165.1 61.9 8 7/8 145 1 M24 9.8
2 1/2 65 245 41.3 124 64 105 7 19 190.5 74.6 8 1 160 1 1/8 M27 16.4
3 80 265 47.7 133 N/A 127 7 203.2 N/A 8 1 1/8 180 1 1/4 M30 21.8

Construction, Welding & Applications

asme b16.5 sw flange drw - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Fig-1: a typical drawing of socket welding flange conforming to ASME B16.5 with raised face.

The socket welding flange conforming to ASME B16.5 is also a hubbed flange, which is generally constructed of a circular flange body and a tapered hub. The flange shall be manufactured as one piece and the taper shall not exceed 7 degrees. A socket structure of a certain depth shall be machined out in the bore. The diameter of socket (counterbore, dimension J as illustrated in Fig-1) shall be the same as that of the slip on flange of same size. Diameter of the smaller bore (dimension B) shall be equal to the nominal inside diameter of adjoining pipe or the bore diameter of welding neck flange of same size. The socket welding flange can be furnished with raised face (RF), flat face (FF), or ring type joint (RTJ).

welding of sw flange - What are socket weld pipe fittings

Fig-2: illustration of the welding of a socket welding flange to a pipe.

Socket welding flange is welded to a pipe by a circumferential fillet weld, which joins the outside surface of the pipe and the hub of the flange. The fillet weld is a weld of an approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other. The pipe is inserted into the socket of the flange first and alignment is relatively simple since the pipe fits into the socket readily. A 1/16″ (2.0 mm) gap shall be maintained prior to welding between the pipe end and the socket bottom of the flange. This gap is furnished to allow for differential thermal expansion of the mating elements. If there is no gap, when temperature increases, the thermal expansion difference between the pipe and the socket weld flange may result in cracking of the fillet weld. An internal weld is sometimes employed for added strength. By grinding the internal weld smooth, turbulence and flow restriction are kept to a minimum.

Socket welding flanges conforming to ASME B16.5 are permitted under the B31 series of Pressure Piping Codes and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. In piping engineering, although available in sizes up to 3″, they are most frequently used in sizes 2″ and smaller. Thus, socket welding flanges shall be applied for small diameter high-pressure piping systems. A significant disadvantage of socket welding is that the flange is susceptible to crevice corrosion. Corrosive solutions from the process fluid may accumulate in the gap and crevices formed between the outside surface of pipe and the socket surface of flange. This stagnant solution may lead to crevice corrosion. Hence socket welding flanges usually are not used in corrosive applications.

Dimensions & Tolerances of Socket Weld Flanges ASME B16.5

As illustrated in Fig-1, the dimension D: outside diameter of flange, K: diameter of bolt circle, G: diameter of raised face, B: smaller bore diameter of socket weld flange, J: diameter of socket (counterbore), X: diameter of hub at the large end of hub, E: depth of socket, n: number of bolt holes, d: diameter of bolt hole, Y: length through hub, T: minimum thickness of flange, t: height of raised face.

Item Condition Tolerance
D D ≤ 24″ ±1.5
D > 24″ ±3.0
B NPS ≤ 10 ±1.0
12 ≤ NPS ≤ 18 ±1.5
NPS ≥ 20 +3.0
-1.5
J 1∕2 ≤ NPS ≤3 ±0.25
K NPS ≤ 24 ±1.5
G 2 mm RF ±1.0
7 mm RF ±0.5
X NPS ≤ 5 +2.0
-1.0
NPS ≥ 6 +4.0
-1.0
Y NPS ≤ 10 ±2.0
NPS ≥ 12 ±3.0
T NPS ≤ 18 +3.0
-1.0
NPS ≥ 20 +5.0
-0.0
*BCC NPS ≤ 2-1∕2 0.8
NPS ≥ 3 1.5
*BHS NPS ≤ 24 ±0.8

  • *BCC: bolt circle concentricity, which is the concentricity between the flange bolt circle diameter and machine facing diameters.
  • *BHS: bolt hole spacing, also known as bolt hole to bolt hole, which is the center-to-center of adjacent bolt holes.
  • *Unit of each tolerance: mm

Advantages and disadvantages of socket weld fittings

Advantages of Socket Weld Fittings
Socket welded fittings have a number of inherent advantages for joining pipes, including:

  • Pipe sleeves can be easily aligned properly, which means there is no need to position the weld to align the pipe for welding;
  • Socket weld fittings have a lower risk of leakage than socket weld fittings;
  • Sleeve design means that weld metal does not flow into the pipe bore;
  • Socket weld fittings are less expensive to install than butt weld fittings because they do not require special machining due to more lenient dimensional requirements.

Disadvantages of socket weld fittings
Socket weld fittings have areas of material build-up that are difficult to clean because the sleeve does not allow full penetration and there must be an expansion gap between the sleeve shoulder and the pipe.

Use of Socket Weld Pipe Fittings

As noted in the “Disadvantages” section above, some applications are not suitable for socket weld use, but the high pressure ratings of socket weld fittings mean they are well suited for a wide range of other industrial applications.
SW fittings can be used in pipelines to safely transport flammable, toxic or hazardous chemicals because of the lower risk of leakage compared to other joining techniques.
Creating a leak-free, permanent connection, SW fittings also allow for excellent flow characteristics. When manufactured to ASME and ASTM standard specifications, these fittings have met performance requirements including tolerances, pressure and temperature ratings, dimensions, materials and markings.
Socket welded fittings are classified by material type, such as alloy or carbon steel and stainless steel tubing. Different types of fittings are available for different applications, whether it is couplings, reducers, reducers and conventional socket weld tees, elbows or flanges, each with a different material type.

Since these fittings are known as high pressure fittings, they can be easily used in a variety of industrial processes.

Socket welded fittings, such as elbows, tees, and reducers, can be used in pipelines that carry toxic, flammable, or expensive materials without leakage.

Used with ASME piping for changing different sizes.

For use where piping work is considered permanent. In addition, they are designed in such a way as to provide good flow characteristics.

Socket weld pipe fittings are not suitable for higher pressures and temperatures and for cyclic operation. Therefore, they are used in the following less critical low-voltage environments:

  • Fire Fighting System
  • Water distribution system
  • Cooling systems
  • Piping systems, etc.

Can you use X-rays to inspect socket welds?

X-rays can be used to inspect socket welds using a technique similar to radiographic flaw detection used in the medical industry.

Can you take radiographs of socket welds?

Radiographs can be taken of socket welds, and while this is not the ideal way to determine the quality of the weld, it will tell you if proper root clearance is present.

When to use socket weld fittings?

Socket weld fittings are best used for small diameter pipe with NPS 2 or less. They can be used to join small diameter pipe sections together using fillet weld connections to seal the pipe to the fittings.
Why use socket weld fittings?
Socket weld fittings are used for small diameter piping that carries flammable, toxic or expensive materials that are not allowed to leak. Socket weld fittings can also be used for steam at pressures of 300-600 psi. They can form high-strength joints with high flow characteristics and reduce the potential for leaks.

What is Tolerance for Socket Weld Pipe Fittings?

ASME B16.11 Dimensional Tolerances

Engineering Specifications for Socket Weld Fittings Manufactured Per ASME B16.11-2001.

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DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES PERMITTED UNDER THIS AMERICAN STANDARD ASME B16.11-2001

“A” – CENTER TO BOTTOM OF SOCKET FOR SIZES ± 0.03″
1/8″ AND 1/4″
3/8″, 1/2″ AND 3/4″ ± 0.06″
1″, 1-1/4″, 1-1/2″ AND 2″ ± 0.08″
2-1/2″, 3″, AND 4″ ± 0.10″
“B” – BORE DIAMETER OF SOCKET FOR SIZES + 0.020″
1-1/2″ AND SMALLER – 0.000″
2″, 2-1/2″, 3″ AND 4″ + 0.025″
– 0.000″
“C” – SOCKET WALL THICKNESS MINIMUM = 1.09 T (BUT NOT LESS THAN 5/32″)
T = WALL THICKNESS OF NOMINAL PIPE
“D” – BORE DIAMETER OF FITTING FOR SIZES ± 0.030″
2″ AND SMALLER
2-1/2″, 3″ AND 4″ ± 0.060″
“E” – BOTTOM TO BOTTOM OF SOCKETS – COUPLINGS FOR SIZES ± 0.06″
1/8″ AND 1/4″
3/8″, 1/2″ AND 3/4″ ± 0.12″
1″, 1-1/4″, 1-1/2″ AND 2″ ± 0.16″
2-1/2″, 3″, AND 4″ ± 0.20″
“F” – BOTTOM OF SOCKET TO OPPOSITE FACE – HALF COUPLINGS FOR SIZES ± 0.03″
1/8″ AND 1/4″
3/8″, 1/2″ AND 3/4″ ± 0.06″
1″, 1-1/4″, 1-1/2″ AND 2″ ± 0.08″
2-1/2″, 3″, AND 4″ ± 0.10″
“G” – WELDING GAP APPROXIMATELY 0.06″
RECOMMENDED GAP BEFORE WELDING
“H” – MINIMUM FLAT MINIMUM FLAT = 0.75 X MINIMUM
SOCKET WALL THICKNESS

Our tolerance control

  • 1. Our included angle (perpendicularity) tolerance is controlled at ± 0.08 ° (88.92 ° ~90.08 °)
  • 2. The tolerance of center height a value shall be controlled within 0.05mm.
  • 3. The deviation y value tolerance shall be controlled within ± 0.1mm.

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Our socket / socket weld fittings, especially the multi-element dense series installation under complex working conditions, make the pipe installation more convenient, the structure more beautiful, and the layout more orderly, which is our traditional strength.

How to install socket weld fittings

As the name implies, socket welding is to insert the tube into the welding, socket welding pipe fittings are welded pipe fittings, using a common welding technology tools, with welding work experienced and certified welders can be installed by the installation business master.

Pipe fittings are processed directly into socket, such as socket valves, socket elbows, socket flanges, socket tees, socket collars and other pipe fittings.

Stainless steel socket welded fittings are generally used for small pipe diameters less than or equal to DN40, which is more economical. Butt welding is generally used for DN40 or above. Socket welding connection form is mainly used for welding small diameter valves and pipes, pipe fittings and pipelines. Small diameter pipes generally have thin wall thickness, easy to misalignment and ablation, butt welding is more difficult, more suitable for socket welding. In addition, socket welded joints have a strengthening effect, so they can be used under high pressure.

However, socket welding also has disadvantages, one of which is the poor stress conditions after welding, welding is easy to incomplete, there are gaps in the pipeline system, so it is not suitable for gap corrosion sensitive media pipeline system and high cleanliness requirements of the pipeline system. Furthermore, ultra-high pressure treatment pipeline, even our small diameter pipeline wall thickness is also very large, can be connected with butt welding can be avoided as far as possible socket welding.

To install a socket weld, the pipe is inserted into the recess of the fitting, leaving a minimum 1/16″ clearance to allow for thermal expansion of the pipe under welding pressure. Once the pipe is in place, it can be welded in place by a series of fillet welds. If the pipe expands over the fittings, the thermal expansion gap will prevent the weld from cracking.

What is the minimum gap allowed for a socket weld fitting?

As long as some small, non-zero gap is provided for piping subject to increasing temperature thermal transients, there will be no impact of differential thermal expansion between the pipe and the fitting upon the fatigue life of the socket weld. This gap can be as small as .004″. for piping subject to severe thermal transients, .001″. for piping subject to moderate transients such as reactor trips, and can be essentially zero for piping subject to only normal heatup transients. For all practical purposes, such gaps will be present unless the fabricator has intentionally held the pipe tightly in the bottom of the socket while welding. Clearly, the gap does not have to be anywhere near as large as the Code specified 1/16″.
When assembling the socket joint, there must be 1/16″ clearance between the inserted pipe and the bottom of the socket. It is difficult to prove that there is a gap of 1/16″ after welding, which may usually be the reason why QC refuses to weld.

The difference between socket welded fittings and butt weld fittings

Socket welded fittings are generally used for small pipe diameters less than or equal to DN40, which is more economical, while butt welded fittings are generally used for DN40 and above. So what are the differences between socket welded fittings and butt welded fittings?

Socket welding: pipe into the socket welded fittings for welding inside, mostly used for the welding of carbon steel pipes and stainless steel pipes below 2″.

Butt welding: Using resistance heat to weld two workpieces together along the entire end face at the same time, is widely used in the welding of workpieces.

The difference between socket welding and butt welding.
  • 1. Socket welding is formed by fillet welds, butt welding is formed by butt welds. The strength and stress conditions of the butt weld are better than those of the socket, so butt welding is appropriate for applications with higher pressure levels and harsh usage conditions.
  • 2. Socket welding is generally used for smaller pipe diameter less than or equal to DN40, such as small diameter valves and pipes, pipe fittings and pipe welding, more economical, butt welding is generally used for DN40 or more.
  • 3. The pressure level is lower caliber and smaller mostly socket welding, pressure level is often high are butt welding. And 100% flaw detection test is required to ensure no leakage.
  • 4. Socket welding requires a difference in diameter to insert welding, butt welding is not required.
  • 5. Butt welding requirements are generally higher than the requirements of socket welding, welding quality or, therefore, relatively strict means of detection. Weld to do radiographic flaw, socket welding is to do magnetic particle or penetration testing (such as carbon steel to do magnetic particle, stainless steel to do penetration).

How to make socket weld pipe fittings

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Process flow diagram of socket weld pipe fittings

I. Raw material re-inspection

The surface of raw materials should be free of oil and dirt, and should not be allowed to contact with low melting point metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, etc.) during handling, loading and unloading, otherwise they should be removed by appropriate methods (such as sandblasting).

Materials for pipe fittings include metal materials such as forgings, bars or seamless tubes, etc. The materials used are rechecked to determine that the metal materials meet the technical requirements of the order and the chemical composition requirements specified in the relevant material standards.

Raw materials should have quality certificate, no mark, no batch number, no quality certificate or incomplete quality certificate items cannot be used.

II. Material

Select the type of raw materials according to the specifications of the produced pipe fittings, and number the blanks to make records.

III. Manufacturing 

Set aside the amount of machining, the material should be forged as close as possible to the specified shape and size to reduce processing costs.

Cylindrical products can be made from hot-rolled or forged bars or seamless tube cutting process, the axial direction of the product should be roughly parallel to the rolling direction of the metal billet. Should not be manufactured by direct cutting and processing of bars.

IV. Heat treatment

Normally, for cold forming or hot forming of carbon steel should be annealed or normalized heat treatment.

When the manufacturing conditions meet the following requirements, heat treatment may not be carried out.

  • a) The final forging temperature of carbon steel fittings is not less than 700 ℃ and not more than 980 ℃, and placed under the conditions of cooling in still air.
  • b) Directly with the bar or seamless pipe cutting and manufacturing of pipe fittings, and the material has been factory heat-treated or carbon steel materials for the hot-rolled state.

V. Machining

Strictly in accordance with ASME B16.11 standard requirements for mechanical processing. Geometric dimensions and limit deviations should meet the requirements of the standard.

VI. Size and appearance inspection

The shape and dimensional tolerances of forged socket weld pipe fittings shall conform to the requirements of AS ME B16.11 standard.

The surface of forged socket weld pipe fittings should be inspected piece by piece and should be free of cracks, laminations and other defects, and should be free of burrs, oxide and other adhesions. 

The surface of the pipe fittings are allowed to have scattered but not large areas of scars, folds, pits, hairlines, scratches, etc., but their depth should not be greater than 5% of the wall thickness and not more than 0.8mm.

The surface scars, folds, pits, hairlines, scratches, etc. that exceed the depth specified in 6.3 should be polished and removed, and the wall thickness of the polished area should not be less than the minimum value specified.

VII. Non-destructive testing

Each piece of pipe before nondestructive testing, the internal and external surfaces of the pipe should be wiped clean. And to ensure that the surface roughness to meet the testing requirements.

Nondestructive testing personnel should be assessed by GB/T9445 or other equivalent standards, and nondestructive testing should be conducted by I, II or III personnel. The evaluation of the display results should be carried out by I-level personnel under the supervision of II and III-level personnel, or directly by II and III-level personnel.

For all forged socket weld pipe fittings the entire body of the pipe according to JB4730 for 100% magnetic particle, magnetic particle testing selected A-30/100 or C-15/50 standard test piece, level I qualified.

VIII. Marking
  • Marking position

Each pipe fitting should be wrought with raised letters, steel printing, engraving or electro-etching and other permanent marking methods, the end of the pipe fitting flange or projection position marked clearly visible signs; cylindrical pipe fittings should be marked in the outer diameter or in the welding installation of the logo will not disappear after the end. When using steel markings, should not make the imprint invade the minimum wall thickness of the pipe body. 

  • Marking content

The marking of pipe fittings should include the following.

  • 1) Manufacturer’s name or trademark. 
  • 2) Material grade.
  • 3) Material melting furnace number.  
  • 4) Pipe fittings level. 
  • 5) Nominal size.
  • 6) Standard number (may not include the age number).