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What is a valve

What is a valve?

Table of Contents

A valve is a device used in a fluid system to control the direction, pressure, and flow of a fluid. It is a device that allows a steel pipeline or a medium (liquid, gas, powder) to flow or stop and control its flow.

The valve is a control component in the fluid transmission pipeline system. It is used to change the passage section and the flow direction of the medium, and has the functions of diversion, cutoff, throttling, check, diversion or overflow relief. Valves for fluid control, from the simplest shut-off valves to the wide variety of valves used in extremely complex automatic control systems, the variety and specifications of the valve, the nominal diameter of the valve from a very small instrument valve to a diameter of up to 10m Valves for industrial piping. It can be used to control various types of fluids such as water, steam, oil, gas, mud, various corrosive media, liquid metal and radioactive fluid. The working pressure of the valve can be from 0.13MPa to 1000MPa. The working temperature can be C-270 ° C ultra-low temperature to 1430 ° C high temperature.
The valve can be controlled by various transmission methods, such as manual, electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, turbo, electromagnetic, electromagnetic hydraulic, electrohydraulic, gas-hydraulic, spur gear, bevel gear drive, etc.; can be under pressure, temperature Under the action of other forms of sensing signals, according to predetermined requirements, or simply open or close without relying on the sensing signal, the valve relies on a driving or automatic mechanism to cause the opening and closing member to be lifted, slid, swiveled or swiveled. Movement, thereby changing the size of its flow path area to achieve its control function.

Valve materials

Common materials of valves

  • 1Gray cast iron: gray cast iron is suitable for water, steam, air, gas, oil and other media with nominal pressure PN ≤ 1.0MPa and temperature of – 10 ℃ ~ 200 ℃. Common grades of gray cast iron are: HT200, HT250, HT300 and ht350.
  • 2Malleable cast iron: suitable for water, steam, air and oil media with nominal pressure PN ≤ 2.5MPa and temperature – 30 ~ 300 ℃. Common brands include kth300-06, kth330-08 and kth350-10.
  • 3Ductile iron: suitable for water, steam, air, oil and other media with PN ≤ 4.0Mpa and temperature of – 30 ~ 350 ℃. Common brands are: QT400-15, QT450-10, QT500-7.
  • In view of the current domestic process level, the factories are uneven, and it is often difficult for users to test. According to experience, it is recommended that PN ≤ 2.5MPa, steel valve is still safe.
  • 4Acid resistant high silicon ductile iron: suitable for corrosive media with nominal pressure PN ≤ 0.25MPa and temperature lower than 120 ℃.
  • 5Carbon steel: suitable for water, steam, air, hydrogen, ammonia, nitrogen, petroleum products and other media with nominal pressure PN ≤ 32.0mpa and temperature – 30 ~ 425 ℃. Common brands include WC1, WCB, ZG25, high-quality steel 20, 25, 30 and Low-Alloy Structural Steel 16Mn.
  • 6Copper alloy: suitable for water, seawater, oxygen, air, oil and other media with PN ≤ 2.5MPa and steam media with temperature of – 40 ~ 250 ℃. The common brands are zgnsn10zn2 (tin bronze), H62, HPb59-1 (brass), qaz19-2 and qa19-4 (aluminum bronze).
  • 7High temperature copper: suitable for steam and petroleum products with nominal pressure PN ≤ 17.0mpa and temperature ≤ 570 ℃. Common brands include ZGCr5Mo, 1cr5m0.zg20crmov, zg15gr1mo1v, 12CrMoV, wc6 and wc9. The specific selection must be in accordance with the regulations of valve pressure and temperature specification.
  • 8Low temperature steel: applicable to media with nominal pressure PN ≤ 6.4Mpa, temperature ≥ – 196 ℃ (such as ethylene, propylene, liquid natural gas, liquid nitrogen and other media, common brands include ZG1Cr18Ni9, 0Cr18Ni9, 1Cr18Ni9Ti and zg0cr18ni9)
  • 9Stainless acid resistant steel: it is applicable to nitric acid, acetic acid and other media with nominal pressure PN ≤ 6.4Mpa and temperature ≤ 200 ℃. The common brands are zg0cr18ni9ti, zg0cr18ni10 < < resistance to nitric acid >, zg0cr18ni12mo2ti, zg1cr18ni12mo2ti < < resistance to acid and urea >
  • 10. In addition to the above metal valves, there are plastic valves and ceramic valves for special applications.

Typical Materials for Gate Valves, Globe Valves and Check Valves

Base material
Valve body
Stem
Disc
s - What is a valve
Bronze / Brass
Bronze (CAC401,CAC406)
Brass (C3771)
K metal (C3531)
Bronze
Brass
s - What is a valve
Cast iron
Gray cast iron (FC200,FC300)
Stainless steel
Brass
Gray cast iron
s - What is a valve
Ductile iron
Ductile iron castings (FCD-S)
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
s - What is a valve
Cast steel
Carbon steel castings for high temperature / pressure service (SCPH 2)
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
s - What is a valve
Stainless steel
Stainless steel castings
(SCS13A,SCS14A)
Stainless steel
Stainless steel

Typical Materials for Ball Valves

Base material
Valve body
Stem
Ball
Bronze / Brass
Bronze (CAC401)

Brass (C3771)

K metal (C3531)

Stainless steel

Brass

Stainless steel

Cast iron
Gray cast iron (FC200)
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
Ductile iron
Ductile iron castings (FCD-S)
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
Cast steel
Carbon steel castings for high temperature / pressure service (SCPH 2)
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
Stainless steel
Stainless steel castings

(SCS13A,SCS14A)

Stainless steel
Stainless steel

Typical Materials for Butterfly Valves

Base material Valve body Stem Disc
Cast iron Nodular graphite cast iron (FCD450-10) Stainless steel Stainless steel
Nodular graphite cast iron +
Nickel plating
Gray cast iron (FC200) Stainless steel Stainless steel
Nodular graphite cast iron +
Nickel plating
Nodular graphite cast iron +
Nylon lining
Aluminum Aluminum alloy (ADC12) Stainless steel Stainless steel
Stainless steel Stainless steel castings (SCS13A) Stainless steel Stainless steel

Valve Body Material Characteristics

Body material Characteristics
Gray cast iron (FC200) Gray cast iron has a long history that dates back many centuries. It is used mainly for valves in relatively low-pressure and low-temperature service. It is also used in a wide range of applications, from kitchen utensils to art pieces.
Nodular graphite cast iron (FCD450-10) Invented in 1948, this metal is increasingly in demand, as it conveniently combines the excellent machinability characteristic of cast iron with a toughness that is comparable to copper. Because of this toughness, it is also called ductile cast iron.
Ductile iron castings (FCD-S)
Carbon steel castings for high temperature / pressure service (SCPH2) Carbon steel is tough and has excellent hardness, tensile strength and impact value. It is commonly used in industrial plants for high temperature / pressure applications.
Stainless steel castings (SCS13A,SCS14A) Although comparatively expensive, stainless steel has superior corrosion resistance, heat resistance, low-temperature resistance and excellent mechanical properties.
Bronze (CAC401,CAC406) Bronze is an alloy of copper to which tin, zinc and lead are added to achieve particular physical properties. Historically, it was the first metal used for casting. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Both alloys have excellent machinability and corrosion resistance and are used for relatively small valves in low-pressure service.
Brass (C3771)

Working Pressure & Temperature Range for Valve Body Materials

Body material
Max. permissible pressure (MPa)
Permissible temperature range (°C)
s - What is a valve
gr01 - What is a valve gr02 - What is a valve s - What is a valve
Gray cast iron
gr03 - What is a valve gr04 - What is a valve s - What is a valve
Nodular graphite cast iron
gr05 - What is a valve gr06 - What is a valve s - What is a valve
Ductile iron castings
s - What is a valve
Carbon steel castings for high temperature / pressure service
gr07 - What is a valve gr08 - What is a valve s - What is a valve
Stainless steel castings
gr09 - What is a valve gr10 - What is a valve s - What is a valve
Bronze
gr11 - What is a valve gr12 - What is a valve s - What is a valve
Brass
s - What is a valve
s - What is a valve

Note: The above permissible temperature values indicate the limits within which each respective material can operate, not the working temperature range for the valve body made from that material. (from: www.kitz.co.jp/english2/material_index.html)

Valve standard

API – Valve Standards

An overview of the American Petroleum Institute – API – valve standards

API Standard Code Name

API Standard Name

API SPEC6D

Supplement 1 to api spec 6D (sixteenth edition ) specification for pipeline valves

API STD6D

Steel gate plug ball and check valves for pipeline service

API STD6D

API Specification for flanged steel gate and plug valves for drilling and production service

API SPE14D

API Specification for wellhead surface safety valves for offshore service

API 526

Flanged steel safety relief valves

API 527

Commercial seat tightness of safety relief valves with metal – to metal seats

API 528

API standard for safety relief valve nameplate nomenclature

API 529

Cast – forged Steel plug valves flanged ends

API 594

Wafer – type check valves

API 595

Cast – iron gate valves flanged ends

API 597

Steel venturi gate valves flanged or butt welding ends

API 598

Valve inspection and test

API 599

Steel plug valves flanged or butt welding ends

API 600

Flanged and butt – welding – end steel gate and plug valves for refinery use

API 602

Compact design carbon steel gate valves for refinery use

API 603

150 – pound light – wall corrosion – resistant gate valves for refinery use

API 604

Ductile iron gate valves flanged ends

API 607

Fire – resistant testing of ball valves with soft contact faces

API 609

Butterfly valves to 150 psig and 150 F

API SPEC 6FA

Specification for fire test for valves

API SPEC 6FC

Specification for fire test for valves with automatic backseats

API BULL 6RS

Bulletin on referenced standards for committee 6, standardization of valves and wellhead equipment

API RP 11V6

Recommended practice for design of continuous flow gas lift installations using injection pressure operated valves first edition

API RP 11V7

Recommended practice for repair , testing, and setting gas lift valves

API RP 520 PT 1

Sizing, selection and installation of pressure relieving devices in refineries part 1- sizing and selection

API RP 574

Inspection of piping, tubing, valves and fittings first edition, replaces guide for inspection of refinery equipment Chapter XI

API RP 576

Inspection of pressure-relieving devices first edition

API STD 608

Metal ball valves-flanged, threaded and welding end

ASME – Valve Standards

An overview of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers – ASME – valve standards

ASME Valve Standard 

ASME Standard Name

ASME A105/105M

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for piping applications

ASME A181/181M

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for General purpose piping

ASME A182/182M

Standard Specification for forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges, forged fittings and valves and parts for high-temperature service

ASME A727/727M

Standard specification for carbon steel forgings for piping components with inherent notch toughness.

ASME A961

Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges, Forged Fittings, valves, and Parts for Piping Applications

ASME B462

Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled UNS N08020, UNS N08024, UNS N08026, UNS N08367, and UNS R20033 Alloy Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for Corrosive High-Temperature Service

ASME B834

Standard Specification for Pressure Consolidated Powder Metallurgy Iron-Nickel- Chromium-Molybdenum (UNS N08367) and Nickel- Chromium Molybdenum Columbium (Nb) (UNS N06625) Alloy Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts

ASME D5500

Standard Test Method for Vehicle Evaluation of Unleaded Automotive Spark-ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation

ASME F885

Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Bronze Globe Valves NPS 1/4 to 2 El-1996 R(1996)

ASME F992

Standard Specification for Valve Label Plates El-1997 R(1997)

ASME F993

Standard Specification for Valve Locking Devices El-1997 R(1997)

ASME F1020

Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for marine Applications El-1996 RI’1996)

ASME F1098

Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Butterfly Valves – NPS 2 to 24 EI-1993 R(1993)

ASME F1271

Standard Specification for Spill Valves for Use in Marine Tank Liquid Overpressure Protections Applications EI-1995 R (1995)

ASME F1370

Standard Specification for Pressure Reducing valves for Water Systems, Shipboard

ASME F1508

Standard Specification for Angle Style, Pressure Relief Valves for Steam, Gas, and Liquid Services

ASME F1565

Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Steam Service

ASME F1792

Standard Specification for Special Requirements for Valves Used in Gaseous Oxygen Service

ASME F1793

Standard Specification for Automatic Shut-Off Valves (Also Known as Excess Flow Valves, EFV) for Air or Nitrogen Service

ASME F1794

Standard Specification for Hand operated, Globe-Style Valves for Gas (Except Oxygen Gas), and Hydraulic Systems

ASME F1795

standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Air or Nitrogen Systems

ASME A230

Standard specification for steel wire oil – tempered carbon valve spring quality

ASME A232

Standard specification for chromium – vanadium alloy steel valve spring quality

ASME A350

Standard specification for forged or rolled carbon and alloy steel flanges forged fittings and valves and parts for low – temperature service

ASME A338

Standard specification for ultrasonic examination of heavy steel forgings

ASME A694

Standard specification for forgings carbon and alloy steel for pipe flanges fittings valves and parts for high – pressure transmission service

ASME A404

Standards specification for forged or rolled alloy – steel pipe flanges forged fittings and valves and parts specially heat treated for high temperature service

ASME A522

Forged or rolled 8% and 9% nickel alloy steel flanges fittings valves and parts for low – temperature service

ANSI Valve Standards

An overview of American National Standards Institute – ANSI – valve standards

ANSI Standard Code Name 

ANSI Standard Name

ANSI A126

Grey iron castings for valves flanges and pipe fittings

ANSI A181

Standard specifications for forged or rolled steel pipe flanged forged fittings and valves and parts for general service

ANSI B16.10

Face – to – face and end – to – end dimension of ferrous valves

ANSI B16.34

Steel valves

ANSI B127.1

Constant – level oil valvess

ASTM – Valve Standards

An overview of ASTM International – American Society for Testing and Materials – valve standards

  • ASTM A126-04
    Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings
  • ASTM A182/A182M-04
    Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
  • ASTM A338
    Standard Specification for Malleable Iron Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and Valve Parts for Railroad, Marine, and Other Heavy Duty Service at Temperatures Up to 650°F (345°C)
  • ASTM A522/A522M-01
    Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled 8 and 9% Nickel Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Low-Temperature Service
  • ASTM A694/A694M-03
    Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service
  • ASTM A961-04
    Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges, Forged Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Piping Applications
  • ASTM A988/A988M
    Standard Specification for Hot Isostatically-Pressed Stainless Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A989/A989M
    Standard Specification for Hot Isostatically-Pressed Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High Temperature Service
  • ASTM B61-2
    Standard Specification for Steam or Valve Bronze Castings
  • ASTM B763
    Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Sand Castings for Valve Application
  • ASTM B834
    Standard Specification for Pressure Consolidated Powder Metallurgy Iron-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (UNS N08367) and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium (Nb) (UNS N06625) Alloy Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts
  • ASTM C1129
    Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Savings by Adding Thermal Insulation to Bare Valves and Flanges
  • ASTM F885
    Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Bronze Globe Valves NPS 1/4 to 2
  • ASTM F992
    Standard Specification for Valve Label Plates
  • ASTM F993
    Standard Specification for Valve Locking Devices
  • ASTM F1020
    Standard Specification for Line-Blind Valves for Marine Applications
  • ASTM F1030
    Standard Practice for Selection of Valve Operators
  • ASTM F1098
    Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Butterfly Valves-NPS 2 to 24
  • ASTM F1271
    Standard Specification for Spill Valves for Use in Marine Tank Liquid Overpressure Protections Applications
  • ASTM F1370
    Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Water Systems, Shipboard
  • ASTM F1394
    Standard Test Method for Determination of Particle Contribution from Gas Distribution System Valves
  • ASTM F1565
    Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Steam Service
  • ASTM F1792
    Standard Specification for Special Requirements for Valves Used in Gaseous Oxygen Service
  • ASTM F1793
    Standard Specification for Automatic Shut-Off Valves (Also Known as Excess Flow Valves, EFV) for Air Or Nitrogen Service
  • ASTM F1794
    Standard Specification for Hand-Operated, Globe-Style Valves for Gas (Except Oxygen Gas), and Hydraulic Systems
  • ASTM F1795
    Standard Specification for Pressure-Reducing Valves for Air or Nitrogen Systems
  • ASTM F1802
    Standard Test Method for Performance Testing of Excess Flow Valves
  • ASTM F1970
    Standard Specification for Special Engineered Fittings, Appurtenances or Valves for use in Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) or Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Systems
  • ASTM F1985
    Standard Specification for Pneumatic-Operated, Globe-Style, Control Valves
  • ASTM F2138
    Standard Specification for Excess Flow Valves for Natural Gas Service
  • ASTM F2215
    Standard Specification for Balls, Bearings, Ferrous and Nonferrous for Use in Bearings, Valves, and Bearing Applications
  • ASTM F2324
    Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray Valves

BS – British Standard Valves

An overview of BS – British Standard institute valve standards

British Standard Code Name BS

British Standard Name

BS 1212

Ball valves (Portsmouth type ) excluding floats

BS 1123

Specification for safety valves, gauges and other safety fittings for air receivers and compressed air installations

BS 1414

Specification for steel edge gate valves ( flanged and butt- welding ends ) for the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries

BS 1552

Control plug cocks for low – pressure gases

BS 1570

Specification for Flanged and Butt – welding ends steel plug valves for the petroleum industry (excluding well – Head and flow – line valves)

BS 1735

Specification for Flanged cast iron outside – screw – and – yoke edge gate valves class 125, size 1.5 in to 24 in for the petroleum industry

BS 1868

Specification for steel check valves (flanged and butt-welding ends ) for the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries

BS 1873

Specification for Steel globe and globe stop and check valves (flanged and butt-welding ends ) for the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries

BS 1952

Specification for copper alloy gate valves for general purposes

BS 1953

Copper alloy check valves for general purposes

BS 1968

Floats for Ball valves ( copper )

BS 2060

Copper alloy screw – down stop valves for general purposes

BS 2080

Specification for Face – to – face, centre – to – face end – to -end and centre – to – end dimensions of flanged and butt-welding ends steel valves for the petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries

BS 2591 PT.1

British standard glossary for valves and valve parts (for fluids ) part 1.screw – down stop ,check and gate valves

BS 2591 PT.2

British standard glossary for valves and valves parts ( for fluids) part,2 safety valves and relief valves

BS 2591PT.3

British standard glossary for valves and valve parts (for fluids ) part 3, Plug valves and cocks

BS 2591PT.4

British standard glossary for valves and valves (for fluids ) part4, butterfly valves

BS 2591PT.5

British standard glossary for valves and valve parts ( for fluids ) part5, Ball valves

BS 2995

Specification for cast and forged steel wedge gate, glove, check and plug valves screwed and socket – Welding sizes 2 in and smaller for the petroleum industry

BS 3464

Specification for cast iron gate valves for general purposes

BS 3808

Specification for cast and forged steel flanged, screwed and socket – welding Wedge gate valves (compact design ) sizes 2 in and smaller for the petroleum industry

BS 3948

Specification for cast iron parallel slide valves for general purposes

BS 3952

Specification for cast iron butterfly valves for general purposes

BS 3961

Specification for cast iron screw – down stop valves and stop valves and check valves for general purposes

BS 4090

Cast Iron check valves for general purposes

BS 4133

Flanged steel parallel slide valves for general purposes

BS 4312

Flanged steel screw – down stop valves and stop and check valves for general purposes

BS 4460

Steel Ball valves for the petroleum industry

BS 5146

Specification for inspection and test of steel valves for the petroleum petrochemical and allied industries

BS 5150

Cast iron wedge and double disk gate valves for general purposes

BS 5151

Cast iron gate (parallel slide ) valves for general purposes

BS 5152

Cast iron globe and globe stop and check valves for general purposes

BS 5153

Cast Iron check valves for general purposes

BS 5154

Copper alloy globe stop and check, check and gate valves for general purposes

BS 5155

Cast iron and carbon steel butterfly valves for general purposes

BS 5156

Screw down diaphragm valves for general purposes

BS 5157

Steel gate (parallel slide ) valves for general purposes

BS 5159

Specification for cast iron and carbon steel ball valves for general purposes

BS 5160

Specification for Flanged steel globe valves, globe stop and check valves and lift type check valves for general purposes

BS 5351

Steel ball valves for the petroleum petrochemicals and allied industries

BS 5417

Test of genera purpose industrial valves

BS 5418

Marking of general purpose industrial valves

Chinese Valve Standards

Chinese standards for steel, cast iron and metal valves

Chinese Standard Code Num. Chinese Standard Name
GB12220 General valve –  marking
GB12221 Flanged ends metal valve – face-to-face dimensions
GB12222 Multi-turn valve –  connection of driving device
GB12223 Part-turn valve –  connection of driving device
GB12224 Steel valve – general requirements
GB12225 General valve –  copper alloy casting ware technology requirements
GB12226 General valve –  gray casting iron technology requirements
GB12227 General valve –  ductile casting iron technology requirements
GB12228 General valve –  carbon forging steel technology requirements
GB12229 General valve –  carbon casting steel technology requirements
GB12230 General valve –  a casting steel technology requirements
GB12232 General valve –  flanged ends iron gate valve
GB12233 General valve –  iron gate valve and lift check valve
GB12234 General valve –  flanged and butt-welding ends copper gate valve
GB12235 General valve –  flanged steel stop and lift check valve
GB12236 General valve –  steel swing check valve
GB12237 General valve –  flanged and butt-welding ends steel ball valve
GB12238 General valve –  flanged and wafer ends butterfly valve
GB12239 General valve –  diaphragm valve
GB12240 General valve –  iron plug valve
GB12241 Safety valve –  general requirements
GB12242 Safety valve –  characteristic testing solution
GB12243 Direct spring loaded safety valve
GB12244 Pressure reducing valve – general requirements
GB12245 Pressure reducing valve – characteristic testing solution
GB12246 Pilot operated pressure reducing valve
GB12247 Steam trap valve –  classification
GB12248 Steam trap valve –  technology terms
GB12249 Steam trap valve –  marking
GB12250 Steam trap valve –  face-to-face dimensions
GB12251 Steam trap valve –  testing solution
GB/T13927 General valve –  pressure testing
GB/T13932 General valve –  iron swing check valve
GB/T15185 Iron and copper ball valve
GB/T15188.1 Valve face-to-face dimensions –  butt-welding ends valve
GB/T15188.2 Valve face-to-face dimensions –  wafer ends valve
GB/T15188.3 Valve face-to-face dimensions –  female screw-down valve
GB/T15188.4 Valve face-to-face dimensions –  male screw -down valve
JB93 Handle
JB94 Spanner
JB106 Valve – marking and identifying paint
JB308 Valve – type establishing way
JB/T450 PN16.032.0Mpa forging angle type high-pressure valve, fastener and technology requirements
JB451 Lever type safety valve technology requirements
JB1308

Pg(2500kgf/cm2)valve type and base specification

JB1309 Pg(2500kgf/cm2)valve pipe and fastener technology requirements
JB/T1691 Valve key construction element dimension of stem head
JB1692 Umbrella type hand wheel
JB1693 Plane hand wheel
JB1694 Valve stem nut (1)
JB1695 Valve stem nut (2)
JB1696 Valve stem nut (3)
JB1698 Valve stem nut (5)
JB1699 Valve stem nut (4)
JB1700.1 Locking nut (1)
JB1700.2 Locking nut (2)
JB1701 Valve stem nut (6)
JB1702.1 Bearing gland (1)
JB1702.2 Bearing gland (2)
JB1703 Sleeve liner
JB1706 Pressing sleeve nut
JB1708 Gland
JB1709 T type bolt
JB1712 Asbestos packing
JB1713 Packing seat(1)
JB1716 Packing seat(2)
JB/T1717 Valve construction key element back seat ring dimensions
JB1718 Spacer (1)
JB1719 Spacer (2)
JB1720 Spacer (3)
JB1721 Spacer (4)
JB1726 Valve disc seat
JB1727 Folio circle
JB1728 Stop collar
JB/T1732 Valve construction key element taper sealing face dimensions
JB/T1733 Valve construction key element valve body copper sealing face dimensions
JB/T1734 Valve construction key element wedge disc and valve disc copper sealing face dimensions
JB1735 Foot valve disc sealing ring
JB1736 Swing check valve disc sealing ring
JB1737 Swing check valve disc sealing ring pressing board
JB/T1738 Valve construction key element dimensions of wedge gate valve body slide way and slide way groove
JB/T1739 Valve construction key element dimensions of wedge gate valve body sealing plane clearance and wedge angle
JB/T1740 Valve construction key element dimensions of wedge disc sealing plane
JB1741 Thimble
JB1742 Adjusting ring
JB1747 Packing ring
JB1749 Ammonia valve disc
JB/T1750 Valve construction key element ammonia valve body sealing plane dimensions
JB/T1751-92 Valve construction key element socket welding and fitting pipe head dimension
JB/T1752-92 Valve construction key element male screw ends head dimensions
JB1753-91 Joint ring
JB1754-91 Joint
JB1755-91 Joint nut
JB/T1756-92 Valve construction key element dimensions of bayonet joint ends
JB1757-91 Bayonet
JB1758-91 Bayonet nut
JB1759-91 Bearing ring
JB1760- 91 Six-angle bolt
JB1761-91 Bolt ring
JB/T1762-92 Valve construction key element spanner dimensions
JB2202-77 Direct spring loaded safety valve specification
JB2203-77 Direct spring loaded safety valve face-to-face dimensions
JB2205-77 Reducing valve face-to-face dimensions
JB2206-77 Reducing valve technology requirements
JB2311-78 Ball valve technology requirements
JB2765-81 Valve technology terms
JB2766-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa dimensions of forging high-pressure valve
JB/T2768-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa Pipe, piping fitting, valve head dimensions
JB/T2769-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa screw flange
JB/T2770-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa joint nut
JB/T2771-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa joint
JB/T2772-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa Blind flange
JB/T2773-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa double head bolt
JB/T2774-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa double bolt ends and thread hole dimensions
JB/T2775-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa nut
JB/T2776-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa lens ring
JB/T2777-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa Non-hole lens ring
JB/T2778-92 PN16.0- 32.0Mpa temperature marking of pipe and fastener
JB3328-83 Air jar valve and pipe-line valve
JB3339-83 Little type medical air jar frame type valve connection dimensions
JB5206.1-91 Packing gland (1)
JB5206.2-91 Packing gland (2)
JB5206.3-91 Packing gland (3)
JB5207-91 Packing pressing plate
JB5208-91 Separating circle
JB5209-91 Plastics packing
JB5210-91 Back sealing ring
JB5211-91 Gate valve seat ring
JB/T5296-91 General valve testing way of flow rate coefficient and flow resistant coefficient
JB/T5298-91 Steel plate gate valve for pipe line using
JB/T5299-91 General valve Hydraulic actuator butterfly type check valve
JB/T5300-91 General valve material
JB/T6438-92 Valve sealing face plasma arc welding –  technology requirements
JB/T6439-92 Valve pressing casting steel ware –  magnetism powder flaw detector inspection
JB/T6440-92 Valve pressing casting steel ware –  rax irradiating inspection
JB/T6441-92 Safety valve for compressor purpose
JB/T6495-92 Valve construction key element Gate valve (or disc) T type groove dimensions
JB/T6496-92 Valve construction key element packing dimensions
JB/T6497-92 Valve construction key element stem head dimensions
JB/T6498-92 Valve construction key element disc and stem connection groove dimensions
JB/T6899-93 Valve fire-proof test
JB/T6900-93 Draught valve
JB/T6901-93 Seal type glasses valve
JB/T6902-93 Valve casting steel ware hydraulic penetrating inspection way
JB/T6903-93 Valve forging steel ware super wave inspection way
JB/T6904-93 Inspection and testing of air jar valve
JB/T7248-94 Technology terms of low temperature casting steel for valve purpose
JB/T7744-95 Valve sealing face alloy powder for plasma arc welding
JB/T7745-95 Pipe line ball valve
JB/T7746-95 Diameter-shrinking forging steel valve
JB/T7747-95 Needle type stop valve
JB/T7748-95 Valve clearance degree and inspection way
JB/T7749-95 Technology terms of sub-zero valve
JB/T7927-95 Valve casting steel ware out-form quality requirements
JB/T7928-95 General valve offer requirements
JB/Z243-85 Gate valve static pressure length of life test rules
JB/Z244-85 Stop valve static pressure length of life test rules
JB/Z245-85 Plug valve static pressure length of life test rules
JB/Z246-85 Ball valve static pressure length of life test rules
JB/Z247-85 Valve – electrically device length of life test rules
JB/Z248-85 Butterfly valve static pressure length of life test rules
ZBJ16002-87 Valve electrically driving apparatus technology terms
ZBJ16004-88 Reducing valve type and basing coefficient
ZBJ16006-90 Inspection and testing of valve
ZBJ16007-90 Steam trap valve technology terms
ZBJ16008-90 Hydraulic petroleum gas device urgent shut down valve –  technology terms
ZBJ16009-90 Valve pneumatic actuator technology terms
JB/T8473-96 Instrument valve series
JB/T8528-97 General valve electric actuator –  technology terms
JB/T8527-97 Metal sealing butterfly valve
JB/T8529-97 Explosion-proof type valve electric actuator –  technology terms
JB/T8530-97 Valve electric actuator –  type establishing way
JB/T8531-97 Valve manual actuator –  technology terms

JB/T8670-97

YBDF2 series explosion-proof three-phase asynchronous generator for valve electric actuator purpose –  technology terms

DIN – Valve Standards

An overview of DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung – valve standards

  • DIN 475-1
    Widths across flats for bolts, screws, valves and fittings
  • DIN 475-2
    Wrench and socket openings
  • DIN 477-1
    Gas cylinder valves rated for test pressures up to 300 bar; types, sizes and outlets
  • DIN 477-4
    Compressed gas cylinder valves; swing check valves for camping-cylinders
  • DIN 477-5
    Gas cylinder valves – Part 5: For test pressure up to 450 bar max.; Outlet connections
  • DIN 477-6
    Gas cylinder valves; test pressures 300 bar and 450 bar, with cylindrical thread for valve stem and gas cylinder neck for breathing apparatus; sizes, threads
  • DIN 477-9 (Draft standard)
    Gas cylinder valves, for highest grade gases; sizes, connections, threads
  • DIN 1690-10
    Technical delivery conditions for castings of metallic materials; supplementary requirements for steel castings used for heavy-duty valves
  • DIN 3202-4
    Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; Valves with female thread connection
  • DIN 3202-5
    Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; valves for connection with compression couplings
  • DIN 3230-3
    Technical delivery conditions for valves; Compilation of test methods
  • DIN 3230-4
    Technical Conditions of Delivery for Valves; Valves for Potable Water Service, Requirements and Testing
  • DIN 3230-5
    Technical delivery conditions; valves for gas installations and gas pipelines; requirements and testing
  • DIN 3230-6
    Technical delivery conditions for valves; requirements and methods of test for valves for use with flammable liquids
  • DIN 3266-1
    Valves for drinking water installations on private premises; PN 10 pipe interrupters, pipe disconnectors, anti-vacuum valves
  • DIN 3266-2
    Valves for drinking water installations on private premises; PN 10 pipe interrupters, pipe disconnectors, anti-vacuum valves; testing
  • DIN 3320-1
    Safety valves; safety shut-off valves; definitions, sizing, marking
  • DIN 3320-3 (Draft standard)
    Safety valves; safety shut-off valves; center for face dimensions of flanged safety valves to PN 40 and to DN 250 inlet
  • DIN 3339
    Valves; body component materials
  • DIN 3352-1
    Gate Valves; General Information
  • DIN 3352-2
    Cast iron gate valves, with metallic seat and inside screw stem
  • DIN 3352-3
    Cast iron gate valves, with metallic seat and outside screw stem
  • DIN 3352-4
    Cast iron gate valves with elastomeric obturator seatings and inside screw stem
  • DIN 3352-5
    Steel gate valves, isomorphs series
  • DIN 3352-13
    Double-socket cast iron gate valves, with elastomeric obturator seat and inside screw stem
  • DIN 3356-1
    Globe valves; General data
  • DIN 3356-2
    Globe valves; Cast iron stop valves
  • DIN 3356-3
    Globe valves; Unalloyed steel stop valves
  • DIN 3356-4
    Globe valves; High temperature steel stop valves
  • DIN 3356-5
    Globe valves; Stainless steel stop valves
  • DIN 3357-1
    Metal ball valves; general requirements and methods of test
  • DIN 3357-2
    Full bore steel ball valves
  • DIN 3357-3
    Reduced bore steel ball valves
  • DIN 3357-4
    Full bore nonferrous metal ball valves
  • DIN 3357-5
    Reduced bore nonferrous metal ball valves
  • DIN 3381
    Safety devices for gas supply installations operating at working pressures up to 100 bar; pressure relief governors and safety shut-off devices
  • DIN 3399
    Gas low-pressure cut-off valves; safety requirements, testing
  • DIN 3441-1
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; requirements and testing
  • DIN 3441-2
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; ball valves; dimensions
  • DIN 3441-3
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; diaphragm valves; dimensions
  • DIN 3441-4
    Valves of Rigid PVC (Unplasticized or Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride); Y-valves (Inclined-seat Valves), Dimensions
  • DIN 3441-5
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves; PN 6 and PN 10 wafer type butterfly valves; dimensions
  • DIN 3441-6
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) valves; gate valves with inside screw stem; dimensions
  • DIN 3442-1
    Polypropylene (PP) valves; requirements and testing
  • DIN 3442-2
    Fittings of PP (Polypropylene); Ball valves, Dimensions
  • DIN 3442-3
    Polypropylene (PP) valves; diaphragm valves; dimensions
  • DIN 3475
    Spheroidal graphite cast iron valves and fittings provided with internal corrosion protection by means of enamelling, for use in drinking water supply systems; requirements and testing
  • DIN 3476
    Corrosion protection of water valves and pipe fittings by epoxy powder or liquid epoxy resin linings – Requirements and testing
  • DIN 3500
    PN 10 piston type gate valves for use in drinking water supply systems
  • DIN 3502
    Stopvalves for drinking water supplies on and in private property; straight pattern globe valves with oblique bonnet, rated for nominal pressure PN 10
  • DIN 3512
    Stopvalves for domestic water supply – Two-way valves – Vertical bonnet type PN 10; Straight pattern globe valve; Technical rule of the DVGW
  • DIN 3535-1
    Sealants for gas supplies; elastomeric gasket materials for gas valves in domestic installations; requirements and tests
  • DIN 3535-5
    Rubber/cork and rubber/cork synthetic fiber based gasket materials for use with gas valves, gas appliances and gas pipe work
  • DIN 3535-6
    Gaskets for gas supply – Part 6: Gasket materials based on synthetic fibers, graphite or polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE) for gas valves, gas appliances and gas mains
  • DIN 3537-1
    Gas stop valves rated for pressures up to 4 bar; requirements and acceptance testing
  • DIN 3543-1
    Metal tapping valves; requirements, testing
  • DIN 3543-2
    Metallic tapping stop valves; dimensions
  • DIN 3543-3, Publication date:1978-07
    PVC tapping valves for plastic pipes; dimensions
  • DIN 3543-4
    High density polyethylene (HDPE) tapping valves for HDPE pipes; dimensions
  • DIN 3544-1
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) valves; tapping valves; requirements and test
  • DIN 3852-1
    Ports and stud ends with metric fine pitch thread, for use with compression couplings, valves and screw plugs; Dimensions
  • DIN 3852-2
    Stud ends and tapped holes with pipe thread, for use with compression couplings, valves and screw plugs; Dimensions
  • DIN 3852-11
    Stud ends and tapped holes for use with compression couplings, valves and screw plugs – Type E stud end dimensions
  • DIN 19208
    Flow measurement; mating dimensions and application of shut-off valves for differential pressure transducers and differential pressure piping
  • DIN 19578-1
    Stop valves for site drainage systems; anti-flooding valves for faucal sewage systems; requirements
  • DIN 20042
    Water valve, nominal pressure 40 – Dimensions and requirements
  • DIN EN 28233
    Thermoplastics valves; torques; test method (ISO 8233:1988)
  • DIN 30677-1
    Corrosion protection of buried valves; coating for normal requirement
  • DIN 30677-2
    External corrosion protection of buried valves; heavy-duty thermoset plastics coatings
  • DIN 32509
    Hand-operated shut-off valves for welding, cutting and allied processes – Type of construction, safety requirements, tests
  • DIN 42560
    Transformers; Throttle-valves NW 80, Dimensions, Tightness Testing
  • DIN 74279
    Air braking systems – Charging valves
  • DIN 86251
    Shut off valves for shipboard use, of cast iron, with flanges, DN 15 to 500
  • DIN 86252
    Non return valves for shipboard use, cut off type, of cast iron, with flanges, DN 15 to 500
  • DIN 86260
    Shut off valves for shipboard use, of gun metal, with flanges, DN 15 to 500
  • DIN 86261
    Non return valves for shipboard use, cut off type, of gun metal, with flanges, DN 15 to 500
  • DIN 86501
    Valves, screwed bonnet type of gun metal with 24½-connection with port end W according to DIN 3861
  • DIN 86528
    Tab washers for screwed bonnet valves
  • DIN 86552
    Valves, screwed bonnet type of steel with 24½-connection with port end W according to DIN 3861
  • DIN 86720
    Gate valves flat sided of gun metal with screwed bonnet and flanges, DN 20 to DN 100, PN 16
  • DIN 87101, Publication date:2003-10
    Non-return flaps (storm valves), self-closing, vertical type, DN 50 up to DN 150, PN 1 – Mating dimensions for flanges according to PN 10
  • DIN 87901
    Sniffle valves for pumps
  • DIN EN 488
    District heating pipes – Preinsulated bonded pipe systems for directly buried hot water networks – Steel valve assembly for steel service pipes, polyurethane thermal insulation and outer casing of polyethylene; German version EN 488:2003
  • DIN EN 558-1
    Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of metal industrial valves for use in flanged pipe systems – PN designated valves
  • DIN EN 558-2
    Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of metal industrial valves for use in flanged pipe systems – Class-designated valves
  • DIN EN 736-1
    Valves – Terminology – Types of valves
  • DIN EN 736-2
    Valves – Terminology – Part 2: Definition of components of valves
  • DIN EN 736-3
    Valves – Terminology – Part 3: Definition of terms (includes Amendment A1:2001); English version of DIN EN 736-3:1999 + A1:2001
  • DIN EN 917
    Plastics piping systems – Thermoplastics valves – Test methods for resistance to internal pressure and leak-tightness
  • DIN EN 1092-1
    Flanges and their joints – Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories – Part 1: Steel flanges, PN designated
  • DIN EN 1092-2
    Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN designated – Part 2: Cast iron flanges
  • DIN EN 1092-4
    Flanges and their joints – Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN designated – Part 4: Aluminium alloy flanges
  • DIN EN 1680
    Plastics piping systems – Valves for polyethylene (PE) piping systems – Test method for leaktightness under and after bending applied to the operating mechanism
  • DIN EN 1705
    Plastics piping systems – Thermoplastics valves – Test method for the integrity of a valve after an external blow; German version EN 1705:1996
  • DIN EN 28233
    Thermoplastics valves; torques; test method (ISO 8233:1988)

ISO Valve Standards

An overview of ISO – International Organization for Standardization – valve standards.

  • ISO 683-15:1992
    Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels; part 15: valve steels for internal combustion engines
  • ISO 4126-1:2004
    Safety devices for protection against excessive pressure – Part 1: Safety valves
  • ISO 4401:1994
    Hydraulic fluid power – Four-port directional control valves – Mounting surfaces
  • ISO 4411:1986
    Hydraulic fluid power; Valves; Determination of pressure differential/flow characteristics
  • ISO 4422-4:1997
    Pipes and fittings made of unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) for water supply – Specifications – Part 4: Valves and ancillary equipment
  • ISO 5208:1993
    Industrial valves; pressure testing of valves
  • ISO 5209:1977
    General purpose industrial valves; Marking
  • ISO 5210:1991
    Industrial valves; multi-turn valve actuator attachments
  • ISO 5211:2001
    Industrial valves – Part-turn actuator attachment
  • SO 5599-1:2001
    Pneumatic fluid power – Five-port directional control valves – Part 1: Mounting interface surfaces without electrical connector
  • ISO 5599-2:2001
    Pneumatic fluid power – Five-port directional control valves – Part 2: Mounting interface surfaces with optional electrical connector
  • ISO 5599-3:1990
    Pneumatic fluid power; five-port directional control valves; part 3: code system for communication of valve functions
  • ISO 5752:1982
    Metal valves for use in flanged pipe systems; Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions
  • ISO 5781:2000
    Hydraulic fluid power – Pressure-reducing valves, sequence valves, unloading valves, throttle valves and check valves – Mounting surfaces
  • ISO 5996:1984
    Cast iron gate valves
  • ISO 6002:1992
    Bolted bonnet steel gate valves
  • ISO 6182-1:2004
    Fire protection – Automatic sprinkler systems – Part 1: Requirements and test methods for sprinklers
  • ISO 6182-2:1993
    Fire protection; automatic sprinkler systems; part 2: requirements and test methods for wet alarm valves, retard chambers and water motor alarms
  • ISO 6182-3:1993
    Fire protection; automatic sprinkler systems; part 3: requirements and test methods for dry pipe valves
  • ISO 6182-4:1993
    Fire protection; automatic sprinkler systems; part 4: requirements and test methods for quick-opening devices
  • ISO 6182-5:1995
    Fire protection – Automatic sprinkler systems – Part 5: Requirements and test methods for deluge valves
  • ISO 6263:1997
    Hydraulic fluid power – Compensated flow-control valves – Mounting surfaces
  • ISO 6264:1998
    Hydraulic fluid power – Pressure-relief valves – Mounting surfaces
  • ISO 6403:1988
    Hydraulic fluid power; valves controlling flow and pressure; test methods
  • ISO 6552:1980
    Automatic steam traps; Definition of technical terms
  • ISO 6553:1980
    Automatic steam traps; Marking
  • ISO 6554:1980
    Flanged automatic steam traps; Face-to-face dimensions
  • ISO 6704:1982
    Automatic steam traps; Classification
  • ISO 6948:1981
    Automatic steam traps; Production and performance characteristic tests
  • ISO 7121:1986
    Flanged steel ball valves
  • ISO 7244:1984
    Air distribution and air diffusion; Aerodynamic testing of dampers and valves
  • ISO 7259:1988
    Predominantly key-operated cast iron gate valves for underground use
  • ISO 7368:1989
    Hydraulic fluid power; two-port slip-in cartridge valves; cavities
  • ISO 7508:1985
    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves for pipes under pressure; Basic dimensions; Metric series
  • ISO 7714:2000
    Agricultural irrigation equipment – Volumetric valves – General requirements and test methods
  • ISO 7790:1997
    Hydraulic fluid power – Four-port modular stack valves and four-port directional control valves, sizes 02, 03 and 05 – Clamping dimensions
  • ISO 7841:1988
    Automatic steam traps; determination of steam loss; test methods
  • DIN ISO 7967-3:1993
    Reciprocating internal combustion engines; vocabulary of components and systems; valves, camshaft drive and actuating mechanisms
  • ISO 8233:1988
    Thermoplastics valves; torque; test method
  • ISO 8242:1989
    Polypropylene (PP) valves for pipes under pressure; basic dimensions; metric series
  • ISO 8659:1989
    Thermoplastics valves; fatigue strength; test method
  • ISO 9393-1:2004
    Thermoplastics valves for industrial applications – Pressure test methods and requirements – Part 1: General
  • ISO 9393-2:1997
    Thermoplastics valves – Pressure test methods and requirements – Part 2: Test conditions and basic requirements for PE, PP, PVC-U and PVDF valves
  • ISO 9635:1990
    Irrigation equipment; hydraulically operated irrigation valves
  • ISO 9644:1993
    Agricultural irrigation equipment; pressure losses in irrigation valves; test method
  • ISO 9911:1993
    Agricultural irrigation equipment; manually operated small plastics valves
  • ISO 9952:1993
    Agricultural irrigation equipment; check valves
  • ISO 10418:2003
    Petroleum and natural gas industries – Offshore production installations – Basic surface process safety systems
  • ISO 10423:2003
    Petroleum and natural gas industries – Drilling and production equipment – Wellhead and Christmas tree equipment,
  • ISO 10497:2004
    Testing of valves – Fire type-testing requirements
  • ISO 10522:1993
    Agricultural irrigation equipment; direct-acting pressure-regulating valves
  • ISO 10631:1994
    Metallic butterfly valves for general purposes
  • ISO 10931-4:1997
    Plastics piping systems for industrial applications – Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) – Part 4: Valves
  • ISO 10933:1997
    Polyethylene (PE) valves for gas distribution systems

JIS – Valve Standards

Japanese industrial valve standards and specifications from JAS – the Japanese Standards Association.

JIS A1424-2-1998 Method for laboratory tests on noise emission from appliances and equipments used in water supply installations — Part 2: Mounting and operating conditions for draw-off taps and mixing valves
JIS B0100-1984 Glossary of terms for valves
JIS B0109-3-1999 Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Vocabulary of components and systems — Part 3: Valves, camshaft drive and actuating mechanisms
JIS B2001-1987 Nominal size and bore of valves
JIS B2002-1987 Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of valves
JIS B2003-1994 General rules for inspection of valves
JIS B2004-1994 General rules for marking on valves
JIS B2005-1-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 1: Control valve terminology and general considerations
JIS B2005-2-1-2005 Industrial-process control valves — Part 2-1: Flow capacity — Sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions
JIS B2005-2-3-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 2-3: Flow capacity — Test procedures
JIS B2005-2-4-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 2: Flow capacity — Section Four: Inherent flow characteristics and rangeability
JIS B2005-3-1-2005 Industrial-process control valves — Part 3-1: Dimensions — Face-to-face dimensions for flanged, two-way, globe-type, straight pattern and centre-to-face dimensions for flanged, two-way, globe-type, angle pattern control valves
JIS B2005-3-2-2005 Industrial-process control valves — Part 3-2: Dimensions — Face-to-face dimensions for rotary control valves except butterfly valves
JIS B2005-3-3-2005 Industrial-process control valves — Part 3-3: Dimensions — End-to-end dimensions for buttweld, two-way, globe-type, straight pattern control valves
JIS B2005-5-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 5: Marking
JIS B2005-6-1-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 6: Mounting details for attachment of positioners to control valves — Section 1: Positioner mounting on linear actuators
JIS B2005-6-2-2005 Industrial-process control valves — Part 6-2: Mounting details for attachment of positioners to control valves — Positioner mounting on rotary actuators
JIS B2005-7-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 7: Control valve data sheet
JIS B2005-8-1-2004 Industrial-process control valves — Part 8: Noise considerations — Section One: Laboratory measurement of noise generated by aerodynamic flow through control valves
JIS B2007-1993 Industrial-process control valves — Inspection and routine testing
JIS B2011-2003 Bronze, gate, globe, angle, and check valves
JIS B2011 AMD 1-2004 Bronze, gate, globe, angle, and check valves (Amendment 1)
JIS B2031-1994 Gray cast iron valves
JIS B2032-1995 Wafer type rubber-seated butterfly valves
JIS B2051-1994 Malleable iron 10 K screwed valves
JIS B2061-2006 Faucets, ball taps and flush valves
JIS B2062-1994 Sluice valves for water works
JIS B2071-2000 Steel valves
JIS B8210-1994 Steam boilers and pressure vessels — Spring loaded safety valves
JIS B8210 ERRATUM 1-2001 Steam boilers and pressure vessels — Spring loaded safety valves (Erratum 1)
JIS B8225-1993 Safety valves — Measuring methods for coefficient of discharge
JIS B8244-2004 Valves for dissolved acetylene cylinder
JIS B8245-2004 Valves for liquefied petroleum gas cylinder
JIS B8246-2004 Valves for high pressure gas cylinders
JIS B8355-1997 Hydraulic fluid power — Subplate type solenoid operated four-port valves
JIS B8357-2000 Hydraulic fluid power — Compensated flow-control valves — Mounting surfaces
JIS B8373-1993 Pneumatic system — 2-port solenoid operated valves
JIS B8374-1993 Pneumatic system — 3-port solenoid operated valves
JIS B8375-1-2000 Pneumatic fluid power — Five-port directional control valves — Part 1: Mounting interface surface without electrical connector
JIS B8375-2-2000 Pneumatic fluid power — Five-port directional control valves — Part 2: Mounting interface surface with optional electrical connector
JIS B8375-3-2000 Pneumatic fluid power — Five-port directional control valves — Part 3: Code system for communication of valve functions
JIS B8376-1994 Speed control valves for pneumatic use
JIS B8380-2002 Pneumatic fluid power — Identification of ports and control mechanisms of control valves and other components
JIS B8386-2000 Hydraulic fluid power — Valves — Determination of pressure differential/flow characteristics
JIS B8387-2000 Hydraulic fluid power — Four-port modular stack valves and four-port directional control valves, sizes 02, 03 and 05 — Clamping dimensions
JIS B8400-1-2003 Pneumatic fluid power — Five-port directional control valves, sizes 18 mm and 26 mm — Part 1: Mounting interface surfaces without electrical connector
JIS B8401-1999 Automatic steam traps
JIS B8410-2004 Pressure reducing valves for water works
JIS B8414-2004 Relief valves for hot water appliances
JIS B8471-2004 Water pipe line — Solenoid valves
JIS B8472-1994 Steam pipe line — Solenoid valves
JIS B8473-1994 Fuel oil pipe line — Solenoid valves
JIS B8605-2002 Stop valves for refrigerants
JIS B8619-1999 Thermostatic refrigerant expansion valves — Methods of testing for performance
JIS B8651-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional pressure relief valves
JIS B8652-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional pressure relief valves and electro-hydraulic proportional pressure reducing and relieving valves
JIS B8653-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional metering valves
JIS B8654-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional series flow control valves
JIS B8655-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional directional series flow control valves
JIS B8656-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional bypass flow control valves
JIS B8657-2002 Test methods for electro-hydraulic proportional directional bypass flow control valves
JIS B8659-1-2000 Hydraulic fluid power — Electrically modulated hydraulic control valves — Part 1: Test methods for four-way directional flow control valves
JIS B8659-2-2002 Hydraulic fluid power — Electrically modulated hydraulic control valves — Part 2: Test methods for three-way directional flow control valves
JIS B8660-2000 Hydraulic fluid power — Valves controlling flow and pressure — Test methods
JIS B8664-2001 Hydraulic fluid power — Pressure-control valves (excluding pressure-relief valves), sequence valves, unloading valves, throttle valves and check valves — Mounting surfaces
JIS B8665-2001 Hydraulic fluid power — Code for identification of valve mounting surfaces and cartridge valve cavities
JIS B8666-2001 Hydraulic fluid power — Pressure-relief valves — Mounting surfaces
JIS C8702-1-2003 Small-sized valve regulated lead-acid batteries — Part 1: General requirements, functional characteristics — Methods of test
JIS C8702-2-2003 Small-sized valve regulated lead-acid batteries — Part 2: Dimensions, terminals and marking
JIS C8702-3-2003 Small-sized valve regulated lead-acid batteries — Part 3: Safety recommendations for use in electric appliances
JIS C8704-2-1999 Stationary lead-acid batteries — General requirements and methods of tests — Part 2: Valve regulated types
JIS C8704-2 ERRATUM 1-2000 Stationary lead-acid batteries — General requirements and methods of tests — Part 2: Valve regulated types (Erratum 1)
JIS C9730-2-8-2004 Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use — Part 2-8: Particular requirements for electrically operated water valves, including mechanical requirements
JIS C9730-2-17-2004 Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use — Part 2-17: Particular requirements for electrically operated gas valves, including mechanical requirements
JIS C9730-2-19-2004 Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use — Part 2-19: Particular requirements for electrically operated oil valves, including mechanical requirements
JIS E4115-1988 Magnet valves for railway rolling stock
JIS E7701-1992 Safety valves for high pressure gas tank car tanks
JIS F0504-1989 Application and setting pressure of relief valves for ships’ machinery
JIS F3056-1995 Ships’ foot valves
JIS F3057-1996 Bronze vertical storm valves
JIS F3058-1996 Cast steel vertical storm valves
JIS F3059-1996 Bronze screwdown vertical storm valves
JIS F3060-1996 Cast steel screwdown vertical storm valves
JIS F5610-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 20K reflex type water gauges with valves for boilers
JIS F5611-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 63K transparent type water gauges with valves for boilers
JIS F7211-2004 Shipbuilding — Tube glass type level gauges with 5K valves
JIS F7212-2004 Shipbuilding — Tube glass type level gauges with self closing valves
JIS F7213-1996 Shipbuilding — 16K water gauges with valve
JIS F7216-1996 Shipbuilding — Self closing valves for oil level gauges
JIS F7300-1996 Shipbuilding — Application for valves and cocks
JIS F7301-1997 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K globe valves
JIS F7302-1997 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K angle valves
JIS F7303-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K globe valves
JIS F7304-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K angle valves
JIS F7305-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K globe valves
JIS F7306-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K angle valves
JIS F7307-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 10K globe valves
JIS F7308-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 10K angle valves
JIS F7309-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 16K globe valves
JIS F7310-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 16K angle valves
JIS F7311-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 5K globe valves
JIS F7312-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 5K angle valves
JIS F7313-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 20K globe valves
JIS F7314-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 20K angle valves
JIS F7315-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 30K globe valves
JIS F7316-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 30K angle valves
JIS F7317-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 40K globe valves
JIS F7318-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 40K angle valves
JIS F7319-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 10K globe valves
JIS F7320-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 10K angle valves
JIS F7329-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 40K globe valves
JIS F7330-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 40K angle valves
JIS F7333-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron hose valves
JIS F7334-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze hose valves
JIS F7336-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel globe air valves
JIS F7337-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel angle air valves
JIS F7340-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel globe air valves
JIS F7341-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 100K pressure gauge valves
JIS F7346-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K globe valves (union bonnet type)
JIS F7347-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K angle valves (union bonnet type)
JIS F7348-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K globe valves (union bonnet type)
JIS F7349-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K angle valves (union bonnet type)
JIS F7350-1996 Shipbuilding — Hull cast steel angle valves
JIS F7351-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7352-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7353-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7354-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7356-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K lift check valves
JIS F7358-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K lift check globe valves
JIS F7359-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K lift check angle valves
JIS F7360-1996 Shipbuilding — Hull cast steel gate valves
JIS F7363-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K gate valves
JIS F7364-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 10K gate valves
JIS F7365-1996 Shipbuilding — Hull cast steel globe valves
JIS F7366-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 10K gate valves
JIS F7367-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K rising stem type gate valves
JIS F7368-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 10K rising stem type gate valves
JIS F7369-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 16K gate valves
JIS F7371-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K swing check valves
JIS F7372-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 5K swing check valves
JIS F7373-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 10K swing check valves
JIS F7375-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 10K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7376-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 10K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7377-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 16K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7378-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast iron 16K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7379-1996 Shipbuilding — Brass 30K stop valves with bite joint(s)
JIS F7388-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 20K globe valves
JIS F7389-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 20K angle valves
JIS F7398-1996 Shipbuilding — Fuel oil tank self-closing drain valves
JIS F7399-2002 Ship building — Oil tank emergency shut-off valves
JIS F7399 ERRATUM 1-2002 Ship building — Oil tank emergency shut-off valves (Erratum 1)
JIS F7400-1996 Shipbuilding — Valves and cocks — General inspection requirement
JIS F7403-1996 Shipbuilding — Hull bronze globe valves
JIS F7403 ERRATUM 1-2000 Shipbuilding — Hull bronze globe valves (Erratum 1)
JIS F7404-1996 Shipbuilding — Hull bronze angle valves
JIS F7409-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7410-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7411-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K screw-down check globe valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7412-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K screw-down check angle valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7413-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K screw-down check globe valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7414-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K screw-down check angle valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7415-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K lift check globe valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7416-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 5K lift check angle valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7417-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K lift check globe valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7418-1996 Shipbuilding — Bronze 16K lift check angle valves (Union bonnet type)
JIS F7421-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 20K globe valves
JIS F7422-1996 Shipbuilding — Forged steel 20K angle valves
JIS F7425-2006 Shipbuilding — Cast iron valves
JIS F7426-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel valves
JIS F7427-2005 Shipbuilding — Bronze valves
JIS F7456-1999 Shipbuilding — Remote shut-off devices for fuel oil tank and lubricating oil tank emergency shut-off valves
JIS F7457-1999 Shipbuilding — Pneumatically operated remote shut-off devices for fuel oil tank and lubricating oil tank emergency shut-off valves
JIS F7471-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 10K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7472-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 10K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7473-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 20K screw-down check globe valves
JIS F7474-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel 20K screw-down check angle valves
JIS F7475-1996 Shipbuilding — Cast steel angle air valves
JIS F7480-1996 Shipbuilding — Rubber seat butterfly valves
JIS F7505-2006 Shipbuilding — Spheroidal graphite iron (ductile iron) valves
JIS G3561-1994 Oil tempered wire for valve springs
JIS G7603-2000 Valve steels for internal combustion engines
JIS S2120-2000 Gas valves
JIS S2120 ERRATUM 1-2001 Gas valves (Erratum 1)
JIS S2150-1993 Manually operated gas valves for gas appliances
JIS S2151-1993 Automatic gas valves for gas appliances
JIS S3019-1997 Oil control valves for oil burning appliances

MSS – Valve Standards

Manufacturers Standardization Society – MSS – of the Valve and Fittings Industry – valve standards

  • MSS SP-6
    Standard finishes for contact faces of pipe flanges of valves and fittings
  • MSS SP-9
    Spot facing for bronze , iron and steel flanges
  • MSS SP-25
    Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges and unions
  • MSS SP-42
    Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe, angle and check valves with flanged and butt weld ends
  • MSS SP-54
    Quality standard for steel castings – radiographic inspection method for valves , flange, fittings and other piping components
  • MSS SP-55
    Quality standard for steel castings for valves, flanges and fittings and other piping components
  • MSS SP-60
    Connecting flange joint between tapping sleeves and tapping valves
  • MSS SP-61
    Hydrostatic testing of steel valves
  • MSS SP-67
    Butterfly valves
  • MSS SP-70
    Cast iron gate valves , flanged and threaded ends
  • MSS SP-71
    Cast iron swing check valves, flanged and threaded ends
  • MSS SP-72
    Ball valves with flanged or butt – welding ends for general service
  • MSS SP-78
    Cast iron plug valves
  • MSS SP-80
    Bronze Gate, globe angle and check valves
  • MSS SP-82
    Valves pressure testing methods
  • MSS SP-84
    Steel valves socket welding and threaded ends
  • MSS SP-86
    Metric data in standards for valves, flanges and fittings

SAE Valve Standards
SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers – valve standards

Standard Code Standard Name
SAE ARP 490E Electro hydraulic servo valves
SAE AS 707B Thermal sensitive inflation pressure release devices for tubeless aircraft wheels
SAE ARP 745 General components specification for explosive actuated valves one cycle
SAE AS 1607A Valve starter control, pneumatic aircraft engine general specification for replaced ASE ARP 1607
SAE ARP 1616A Self-sealing breakaway valves for crash-resistant aircraft fuel and oil systems — replace AIR 1616
SAE AIR 4782 Hydrant valve and coupler historical background
SAE J 747 Control valve test procedure standard May 1990
SAE J 748 Hydraulic directional control valves 3000psi Maximum, recommended practice Dct.1957
SAE J 1117 Method of measuring and reporting the pressure differential flow characteristics of hydraulic fluid power valve, recommended practice June 1975
SAE J 1118 Hydraulic valves for motor vehicle brake systems test procedure, recommended practice Jun. 1978
SAE J 1235 Measuring and reporting the internal leakage of a hydraulic fluid power valve, Recommended practice June, 1978
SAE J 1409 Air Brake Valves Test Procedure, Recommended Practice March 1983 R(1988)
SAE J 1875 Materials for Plastic Check Valves for Vacuum Booster systems, standard June 1993

Safety Valve Standards
The most common used safety valve standards in Germany, UK, USA, France, Japan, Australia and Europe.

Country Standard No. Description
Germany A. D. Merkblatt A2 Pressure Vessel Equipment safety devices against excess pressure – safety valves
TRD 421 Technical Equipment for Steam Boilers Safeguards against excessive pressure – safety valves for boilers of groups I, III & IV
TRD 721 Technical Equipment for Steam Boilers Safeguards against excessive pressure- safety valves for steam boilers group II
United Kingdom, UK BS 6759
Part 1 specification for safety valves for steam and hot water
Part 2 specification for safety valves for compressed air and inert gas
Part 3 specification for safety valves for process fluids
France
AFNOR NFE-E
29-411 to 416
Safety and relief valves
NFE-E-29-421 Safety and relief valves
Korea KS B 6216 Spring loaded safety valves for steam boilers and pressure vessels
Japan JIS B 8210 Steam boilers and pressure vessels – spring loaded safety valves
Australia SAA AS1271 Safety valves, other valves, liquid level gauges and other fittings for boilers and unfired pressure vessels
USA ASME I Boiler applications
ASME III Nuclear applications
ASME VIII Unfired Pressure Vessel Applications
ANSI/ASME PTC 25.3 Safety and Relief Valves – performance test codes
API RP 520 Sizing selection and installation of pressure relieving devices in refineries, Part 1 Design, Part 2 Installation
API RP 521 Guide for pressure relieving and depressurizing systems
API STD 526 Flanged steel pressure relief valves
API STD 527 Seat tightness of pressure relief valves
Europe EN ISO 4126 Safety devices for protection against excessive pressure
International ISO 4126 Safety valves – general requirements

Types of valves

Ball Valve

Evolving from plug valves, ball valves are a kind of quarter-turn valves whose disc is ball shape. They are mainly used for blocking off, distributing and changing the direction of flow, of which, ball valves with V-type opening have a better flow rate moderating function.

Advantages:

  • The lowest flow resistance (zero).
  • Ball valves won’t get stuck during working even without lubricant, so they are reliable for controlling the flow of corrosive and low-boiling-point media.
  • Fully sealed ability under conditions with relatively high pressure and temperature.
  • Fast shut-off (speeds of some structures are merely 0.05-0.1s), no impact when automatic system operating.
  • The disc can automatically position on the margin.
  • When fully opening or closing, the sealing surfaces of the ball and valve body are separated with the medium, so the sealing surfaces won’t be eroded when the medium is speedily passing the valve.
  • Compact structure, lightweight – so it is considered as the most suitable valve for low-temperature system.
  • Symmetrical shape, especially welded body, being able to withstand the pressure from pipeline.
  • Disc can withstand high-pressure difference when closing.
  • Ball valves with all-welded valve body can directly be buried in the ground, and prevent the inner part of valves from being eroded. Ball valves, whose service life can reach to 30 years, are an ideal option for petroleum, natural gas pipelines.

Disadvantages:

The major material of the sealing ring of valve body is PTEF, which won’t have chemical reactions with almost all other materials. In addition, PTEF has characteristics such as small friction coefficient, stable performance, aging resistance, being able to withstand a wide range of temperature, excellent sealing performance. But, its physical properties, including large expansion coefficient, cold stream sensitivity, poor thermal conductivity, restrain the design of valve body. As the material of sealing ring hardens, its sealing ability weakens. Moreover, PTEF is unable to with high temperature and can’t be used in conditions with temperature higher than 180℃, otherwise the sealing part will deteriorate. 

Weak adjustment performance compared to globe valves, especially pneumatic or electric valves.

Under what circumstances are ball valves used?

Ball valves are used to prevent fluid circulation. A ball valve is a ball with a drilled hole, usually the same diameter as the pipe. It is a quarter turn valve, which has the advantage that it will not hinder the flow of fluid in the open position. When the hole diameter on the valve ball is the same as the pipe diameter, it is called “full flow” valve. In the closed position, this type of valve provides a good sealing system.
This valve is used for liquids (water, oil, etc.) and gases.
Some ball valves are also equipped with conical plugs.
Ball valves can also be used as three-way or four-way valves. In this case, they are also called sector valves.

Plug Valve

It is a rotary valve whose disc is plunger shape (cylindrical shape or conical shape), which can be rotated to control the flow of media. The working principle of plug valves is basically the same with that of ball valves, which evolves from plug valves and mainly used in oil field exploitation, and petrochemical field.

Relief Valve

It is a protective device for pressure vessel, equipment, or pipeline. When the pressure of equipment, vessel or pipeline exceeds the allowed value, the valve will automatically open and discharge media, so as to prevent the pressure continue to go up. If the pressure is lower than the allowed value, valve should close automatically and timely in order to guarantee safe operation of equipment, vessel or pipeline.

Steam trap valve

Media like vapor, compressed air will generate condensate water during transporting that needs to discharge in time for stabilizing the working efficiency and operation of devices.
Steam traps have the following functions:

  • To prevent vapor leakage
  • To discharge air, or other incondensable gases

Check Valve

Check valves, which are also known as non-return valves, one-way valves, reflux valves, can be divided into swing type and lift type. They are a kind of automatic valves that open and close by the force produced by the flow of media. The main function of check valves is to prevent media from flowing backward, pumps and drive motor from reversing, vessel media from venting. 

Gate Valve

It is a valve that vertically moves along the axis of tunnel, and is used for on/off control of the flow of medium rather than moderating flow rate. Gate valves are able to withstand high or low temperature or pressure and convey a wide range of media, but not including mud type media generally.

Advantages:

  • Small flow resistance force.
  • Small torque required for on/off control.
  • The direction of flow is not restricted – gate valves can be used in a bidirectional loop network.
  • The impact of erosion caused by media is less than that of globe valves when gate valves are fully open.
  • Simple structure, good manufacturability.
  • Short structural length.

Disadvantages:

  • Relatively large installation space – big external dimension, long open length required.
  • High-frequency rubbing during opening and closing; Scrapes may occur in high-temperature conditions.
  • Generally, gate valves have two sealing surfaces, which bring a little more difficulty to machining, grinding and maintenance.
  • Long on/off time.

Butterfly Valve

Butterfly valves are a kind of valves that block off or moderate the flow of medium by quarter-turning (the disc is rotated a quarter turn).

Advantages:

  • Simple structure, volume, lightweight, low material consumption.
  • Quick shut-off, small flow resistance.
  • Being able to be used in controlling the flow of media with suspended solid, or, according to the solidity of the sealing surface, powdery or granular media. Butterfly valves are suitable for blocking off and moderating flow (bi-direction) in ventilating and dedusting pipeline, as well as gas pipe, waterway in metallurgy industry, light industrial field, power plant, petrochemical system.

Disadvantages:

  • Small scope of flow moderating – 95% of flow won’t be blocked off even the valve is only open 30%.
  • Being unable to withstand pipeline system with high temperature and pressure due to the restriction of its structure and sealing surface materials (temperature ≤ 300℃, pressure ≤ PN40).
  • Poor sealability compared with ball valves, globe valves (So it can only be installed on places where require low sealabilty.)

Under what circumstances should Butterfly Valves be used?

Butterfly valve is mainly used to control the flow of fluid. Depending on the material of the valve, it can be used for different types of fluids: chemically neutral fluids, such as water or oil, sludge, food or drug fluids, and some butterfly valves can be specially used for corrosive fluids. However, butterfly valves cannot be used for fluids containing solid particles to avoid complete closure of the valve.
Butterfly valves are “quarter turn” valves. It needs to be rotated 90 ° between the open and closed positions to operate. For large diameters, a drive system equipped with a gearbox may be required to compensate for the pressure directly applied to the butterfly valve.
Butterfly valves are designed to ensure a good sealing system. Large diameter butterfly valves are usually flange mounted. For example, butterfly valves for heating circuits are usually screw in valves. Butterfly valve is usually the most space-saving, especially compared with ball valve.

Globe Valve

It is a valve whose disc moves along the center line of valve body. According to this kind of movement mode, the variation of the opening of valve body is proportional to disc travel. Besides, the fact that the valve stem of globe valve has a relatively short travel of opening and closing, its reliable blocking-off function, these three factors are why globe valves are a suitable option for flow moderating, blocking off, and throttling.

Advantages:

  • Wear resistance – small friction compared with gate valves during the processes of opening and closing.
  • Short open length (a quarter of the channel within the valve body).
  • Only one sealing surface, good manufacturability, easy maintenance.
  • High-temperature resistance – Globe valves’ packing materials are normally asbestos and graphite.

Disadvantages:

Because globe valves will change the flow direction of medium, their minimum flow resistance is higher than that of most other valves.

Under what circumstances are globe valves or piston valves used?

The working principle of stop valve and piston valve is the same. The end of the piston rod has a dished part or piston, which is lowered into the valve to prevent fluid flow. This valve is particularly suitable for regulating the fluid according to the pressure in the pipeline. Many stop valve actuators contain an adjusting spring that adjusts the opening of the valve according to the pressure.
The main disadvantage of this valve is the large head loss. In addition, when the fluid pressure is too high, it is difficult to operate the valve in the closed position. They can also close quickly, resulting in water hammer. This valve can also be used as a three-way valve.

Reducing Valve

Reducing valves are used for reducing the upstream pressure to the required downstream pressure and stabilizing the downstream pressure by consuming the energy of medium.

Under what circumstances should Needle Valves be used?

Needle valves are especially used to regulate low flow liquids or gases.
This is a small diameter valve designed for low pressure applications. It is often called “faucet”. Generally, it needs to be started manually. They are very common in home applications and fluid sampling operations. Needle valves are cheaper, which explains why they are so popular.
Important features:

  • Low flow;
  • It usually needs to be started manually;
  • Low cost.

Under what circumstances should Diaphragm Valves be used?

Diaphragm valves are mainly used for sanitary and aseptic processes, i.e. when the circulating fluid must be isolated from any potential contamination.
This valve mainly operates in open / closed mode, although in some cases it can be used for fluid regulation. In the open position, the diaphragm valve is called “full flow”, and there is little pressure drop because the closed diaphragm completely clears the fluid flow. This valve has a very good seal because there is no direct contact between the fluid and the valve stem, but they need regular maintenance to ensure that the diaphragm is in good condition, especially when the fluid contains solid particles. The diaphragm material is required to be able to fully adapt to the operating temperature and pressure conditions to avoid premature wear.
Diaphragm valves are mainly used in food and pharmaceutical industries. They are also often used in the chemical industry and ultrapure applications, depending on the materials they use, especially diaphragms. Diaphragm pumps are also suitable for sludge and highly viscous liquids.
This type of valve is not suitable for large diameter circuits: generally, their manufacturing width does not exceed DN350.
Important features:

  • Limited head loss;
  • Good sealing performance;
  • Application in food, medicine, chemical industry and other industries;
  • Compatible with fluids containing particles.

Disadvantages:

  • Regular maintenance is required;
  • Small nominal diameter.

When to use knife gate valve?

Knife gate valve is often used in mining, power plant, papermaking, chemical industry, food and other industries. Knife gate valves have the advantage of being very compact due to the linear movement of the closing baffle (the plate that prevents fluid flow in the closed position). Knife gate valve is mainly a stop valve, although it can also be used as a control valve when the valve is in the partially open position.
Knife gate valves can be used for fluids containing solid particles, such as wastewater or sludge. In general, knife gate valves are designed to be sealed on the upstream side of the circuit (fluid inlet side), but some valves are sealed on both sides. Therefore, knife gate valves can be used regardless of the fluid flow direction. In the open position, the head loss is very low because the valve will not cause a change in fluid direction.

However, closing and opening times can be long and regular maintenance is required to correct wear between the valve and the seal.

What is a multi-way valve?

Multi way valve refers to a valve with multiple inlets and / or outlets. The most common is a three-way valve, usually a ball valve. This valve is usually used to regulate the flow of fluid in equipment between two different circuits. It can also be used to mix two liquids. There are also four-way, five-way and six-way valves. Valves with more channels than these are very rare.

Requirements

Valve installation requirements

  1. Before installing the valve, carefully check whether the model and specifications of the valve used are consistent with the design;
  2. According to the model of the valve and the factory manual, check whether the valve can be applied under the required conditions;
  3. When the valve is hoisted, the rope should be tied to the flange connection between the valve body and the valve cover, and should not be placed on the hand wheel or the valve stem to avoid damage to the valve stem and the hand wheel;
  4. When installing the valve on the horizontal pipe, the valve stem should be vertical upwards, and the valve stem should not be installed downward;
  5. When installing the valve, it is forbidden to use the forced-to-mouth connection method of pulling and pulling hard to avoid damage caused by uneven force;
  6. The open gate valve should not be installed in the wet place in the ground, so as to avoid valve stem corrosion.

Valve assembly requirements

The cleaned parts must be sealed and stored for installation.
The requirements for the installation process are as follows:

  1. The installation workshop must be clean, or set up a temporary clean area, such as the use of newly purchased color strips or plastic film to prevent dust from entering during the installation process.
  2. The assembly workers must be dressed in clean cotton overalls, wearing a cotton cap, hair can not leak, wear clean shoes, hand wearing plastic gloves, skim.
  3. The assembly tool must be degreased and cleaned before assembly to ensure cleanliness.

Valve specifications

  1. The model number of the valve should indicate the national standard number requirement. If it is an enterprise standard, the relevant description of the model number should be indicated.
  2. The working pressure of the valve requires ≥ the working pressure of the pipeline. Under the premise of not affecting the price, the working pressure of the valve should be greater than the actual working pressure of the pipeline.
  3. Valve manufacturing standards, should be based on the national standard number, if it is an enterprise standard, the procurement contract should be accompanied by corporate documents.

Valve performance testing requirements

  1. When a certain specification of a valve is manufactured in batches, an official agency shall be entrusted to carry out the following performance tests: 1 the opening and closing torque of the valve under the working pressure condition; 2 the detection of the flow resistance coefficient of the valve under the condition of pipeline water delivery.
  2. The valve should be tested before leaving the factory: 1 valve in the open condition, the valve body should withstand the internal pressure of the valve pressure value twice; 2 valve in the closed condition, the two sides respectively with 11 times the valve pressure Value, no leakage; but the metal-sealed butterfly valve, the leakage value is not greater than the relevant requirements.

Valve sealing requirements

The sealing performance of the valve refers to the ability of the sealing parts of the valve to prevent the leakage of the medium. It is the most important technical performance index of the valve. There are three sealing parts of the valve: the contact between the sealing surface of the opening and closing parts and the valve seat; the joint of the packing with the valve stem and the stuffing box; the connection between the valve body and the valve cover. The leak in the former place is called endoleak, which is commonly referred to as the lack of tightness, which will affect the ability of the valve to cut off the medium. For shut-off valves, internal leakage is not allowed. The latter two leaks are called leaks, that is, the medium leaks from the valve to the outside of the valve. External leakage can cause material loss, pollute the environment, and cause accidents in severe cases. For flammable, explosive, toxic or radioactive media, external leakage is not allowed, so the valve must have a reliable sealing performance.

Other requirements for valves

  1. The assembled valve is purged with nitrogen for at least 1 minute.
  2. The airtight test must be pure nitrogen.
  3. After the airtight test is passed, encapsulation is carried out, sealed with a clean polyethylene cap, and the polyethylene cap is soaked with an organic solvent before use and wiped clean.
  4. Then seal with a vacuum bag.
  5. Fnally packing.
  6. Measures should be taken during transportation to ensure that the envelope is not damaged.

The valve parts are few, the structure is simple, the precision is general, and it is a simple component in the mechanical industry, but the core sealing part of the valve is required to be particularly high. The valve manufacturing process is complicated and the technical difficulty is also great.

What process characteristics do we need to pay attention to?

1. Valve manufacturing materials

Due to the variety of valve specifications, such as general valves have gate valves, globe valves, check valves, ball valves, butterfly valves, hydraulic control valves; industrial valves have solenoid valves, regulating valves, pressure reducing valves, high temperature and high pressure valves, low temperature valves and other special valves They are used in various fields of the national economy, and their use occasions vary widely, such as high temperature and high pressure, low temperature cryogenic, flammable and explosive, highly toxic, strong corrosive medium and other working conditions, which imposes stringent requirements on the material of the valve.
In addition to cast iron, carbon steel and alloy structural steel, the valve manufacturing materials also use CrNi stainless steel, CrMoAl nitrided steel, CrMoV heat resistant steel, CrMnN acid resistant steel, precipitation hardened steel, duplex stainless steel, low temperature steel, titanium alloy and Mongolian. Nyle alloy, Inconel alloy, Hastelloy and G0CrW cemented carbide. The casting, welding and processing properties of these high-alloy materials are very poor, which brings great difficulty to the manufacturing process. In addition, most of these materials are high-alloy, high-strength, high-hardness precious materials, and there are many difficulties in material selection, preparation, and procurement. Some materials are difficult to purchase due to their small amount of use.

2. Structure of the cast blank

Most of the valve blanks are made of thin shell castings with complex structure, which not only requires good appearance quality, but also has dense internal quality and good metallographic structure. It cannot have defects such as pores, shrinkage holes, sand inclusions, cracks, etc. . Therefore, the casting process is complicated and the heat treatment technology is difficult. In the machinery industry, the casting of pressure-bearing thin-shell casting blanks of valves is much more complicated and difficult than castings of other mechanical components.

3. Mechanical processing technology

Because most of the high-strength, high-hardness, high-corrosion materials have poor cutting performance, such as high-alloy stainless steel and acid-resistant steel, they have the disadvantages of high toughness, high strength, poor heat dissipation, large chip viscosity and strong work hardening tendency. Difficult to achieve the required dimensional accuracy and finish, it presents certain difficulties for machined tools, processes and equipment. In addition, the valve sealing surface is also very high in machining accuracy, mating angle, smoothness and matching sealing pair, which brings great difficulty to machining.

4. Process arrangement of valve parts

The number of main parts of the valve is small, the structure is relatively simple, the processing precision of most sizes is not high, and the outside is rough, which gives the impression of being a simple machine. In fact, the heart seal of the valve can be extremely precise, the “three degrees” (flatness, smoothness, hardness) of the sealing surface is very high, and the sealing degree of the sealing faces composed of two sealing surfaces must reach zero to zero. To meet the zero leakage of the airtight test. This rough reference to ensure the precise zero-to-zero requirements of the heart is the biggest process difficulty in valve processing.

5. Valve test and inspection

The valve is an important opening and closing and regulating component of the pressure pipeline, and the working conditions of the pressure pipeline are different, high temperature and high pressure, low temperature cryogenic, flammable and explosive, highly toxic and strong corrosion. However, the test and inspection conditions for valve manufacturing are unlikely to meet the same requirements for working conditions. The international and domestic various valve test standards are tested under the condition of near normal temperature with gas or water as the medium. There is a fundamental hidden danger, that is, the valve products that have passed the normal factory test may have difficulty in meeting the requirements of use due to problems such as material selection, casting quality and sealing damage under severe actual working conditions. Quality accident. It is no wonder that some old valve experts who have worked for a lifetime are more and more cautious and more worried.

Manufacturing process of valves

The first step: valve body manufacturing

Valve body (casting, sealing surface surfacing)
Casting purchase (according to standard) into factory inspection (according to standard) ➱ surfacing welding ➱ ultrasonic flaw detection (according to the pattern) ➱ surfacing and post-weld heat treatment ➱ finishing ➱ grinding sealing surface ➱ sealing surface hardness test, coloring flaw detection.

The second step: the valve internals manufacturing process

A. Internal parts such as valve discs, valve seats, etc.

Purchasing raw materials (according to the standard), entering the factory inspection (according to the standard), making blanks (round steel or forgings, according to the technical requirements of the drawings), roughing the ultrasonic flaw detection surface (when the pattern is required), roughing the surfacing, welding, welding and welding Post-heat treatment ➱ Finishing of all parts ➱ grinding sealing surface ➱ sealing surface hardness test, coloring flaw detection.

B. Valve stem

Purchasing raw materials (according to standards), entering the factory inspection (according to the standard), making blanks (round steel or forgings, according to the technical requirements of the drawings), roughing, surfacing, welding, post-weld heat treatment, finishing, machining, grinding, grinding ➱ valve stem surface treatment (nitriding, quenching, electroless plating) ➱ final treatment (polishing, grinding, etc.) ➱ grinding sealing surface ➱ sealing surface hardness test, coloring flaw detection.

C. Do not need to weld the inner surface of the sealing surface, etc.

Purchasing raw materials (according to the standard), entering the factory inspection (according to the standard), making blanks (round steel or forgings, according to the technical requirements of the drawings), roughing the ultrasonic inspection surface (when the drawings are required), finishing the various parts.

The third step: fastener manufacturing

Fastener manufacturing standard DL439-1991.
Purchasing raw materials (according to standards), entering the factory inspection (according to the standard), making blanks (round steel or forgings, according to the technical requirements of the drawings) and sampling for necessary inspection, roughing, finishing, and spectral inspection.

The fourth step: final assembly

After receiving parts, cleaning, cleaning, rough assembly (according to the drawings), water pressure test (according to drawings, processes), after passing, disassembling, wiping, final assembly, and electrical installation or actuator debugging (for electric valves) The package is shipped.
1504662865119111 - What is a valve
Valve product production and inspection flow chart

Step 5: Valve product production and inspection process

  1. The company purchases raw materials of various specifications.
  2. The material is tested by a spectrum analyzer, and the raw material material test report is printed for backup.
  3. Raw material cutting with a cutting machine.
  4. The inspector checks the diameter and length of the raw material cut.
  5. The forging workshop processes the raw materials by forging.
  6. The inspector performs various dimensional inspections of the blank for forming.
  7. The worker is cutting the waste edge.
  8. The sand blaster sandblasts the surface of the blank.
  9. The inspector performs surface treatment inspection after sandblasting.
  10. Workers carry out rough machining.
  11. Valve body sealing thread processing—Employees are inspected after processing by the inspection and inspection personnel.
  12. The valve body is connected to the thread for machining.
  13. Middle hole machining.
  14. The inspector conducts a general inspection.
  15. Qualified semi-finished products are sent to the semi-finished warehouse.
  16. Semi-finished products are plated.
  17. Semi-finished plating surface treatment inspection.
  18. Inspection of various accessories (ball, valve stem, sealed seat).
  19. Product assembly in the assembly shop—assembly line inspection personnel inspect the product.
  20. The assembled product is subjected to pressure testing and drying to the next process.
  21. The assembly shop is responsible for product packaging—-packaging line inspection personnel to check the sealing, appearance and torque of the product. Unqualified products must never be packaged.
  22. Qualified products are packaged and sent to the finished product warehouse.
  23. All inspection records will be stored in the computer for easy access.
  24. Qualified products are sent to and from the country through containers.

Valve cleaning step

Valve components must be processed through the following processes before assembly:

  1. According to the processing requirements, some parts need to be polished, and the surface cannot be processed with burrs;
  2. All parts are degreased;
  3. After the degreasing is completed, the acid washing passivation is carried out, and the cleaning agent does not contain phosphorus;
  4. After pickling and purification, rinse with pure water, there can be no drug residue, carbon steel parts save this step;
  5. Dry the parts one by one with a non-woven fabric, and do not leave the surface of the parts such as wire wool, or blow dry with clean nitrogen;
  6. Use a non-woven fabric or a precision filter paper to analyze the pure alcohol and wipe each component one by one until there is no dirty color.

Daily maintenance of valves

  1. The valve storage environment should be noted. It should be stored in a dry and ventilated room and block both ends of the passage.
  2. The valve should be regularly inspected, and remove the dirt on it, apply anti-rust oil on its surface.
  3. Install the applied valve and perform regular maintenance to ensure its normal operation.
  4. Check the valve sealing surface for wear and repair or replace it according to the situation.
  5. Check the trapezoidal thread wear of the stem and stem nut, whether the packing is out of date, etc., and make necessary replacements.
  6. Test the sealing performance of the valve to ensure its performance.
  7. The valve in operation should be in good condition, the bolts on the flange and the bracket are complete, the thread is not damaged, and there is no looseness.
  8. If the handwheel is lost, it should be timely and cannot be replaced with a spanner wrench.
  9. The packing gland is not allowed to be skewed or has no pre-tightening clearance.
  10. If the valve is used in a harsh environment and is susceptible to dirt such as rain, snow, dust, sand, etc., a protective cover should be installed for the valve stem.
  11. The scale on the valve should be kept intact, accurate and clear, and the valve seals and caps.
  12. The insulation jacket should be free from dents and cracks.
  13. the valve in operation, to avoid hitting it, or supporting heavy objects.

Valve connection

Flange connection

This is the most used form of connection in the valve. According to the shape of the joint surface, it can be divided into the following types:

  1. Smooth type: used for valves with low pressure. More convenient processing
  2. Concave and convex type: high working pressure, can use medium hard washer
  3. Gutter type: It can be used with gaskets with large plastic deformation. It is widely used in corrosive media and has good sealing effect.
  4. Trapezoidal trough type: use oval metal ring as a gasket, used for valves with working pressure ≥ 64 kg / cm 2 , or high temperature valves.
  5. lens type: the gasket is a lens shape, made of metal. For high pressure valves with working pressure ≥100 kg/cm 2 or high temperature valves.
  6. O-ring type: This is a newer form of flange connection, which developed with the appearance of various rubber O-rings, it is in the form of a sealed connection.

Clip connection

A connection form in which the valve and the two pipes are directly clamped together by bolts.

Butt weld connection

A connection that is directly welded to the pipe.

Threaded connection

This is a simple connection method and is often used for small valves. There are two cases:

  1. Direct sealing: The internal and external threads directly seal. In order to ensure that the joints are not leaking, they are often filled with lead oil, wire hemp and polytetrafluoroethylene raw material tape; among them, the polytetrafluoroethylene raw material tape is widely used; this material has good corrosion resistance and excellent sealing effect. It is easy to use and store. When disassembling, it can be completely removed, because it is a non-stick film, which is superior to lead oil and wire.
  2. Indirect sealing: the force of screwing is transmitted to the gasket between the two planes, so that the gasket acts as a seal.

Card sleeve connection

The ferrule connection, the connection and sealing principle is that when the nut is tightened, the ferrule is subjected to pressure, and the blade portion bites into the outer wall of the tube, and the outer tapered surface of the ferrule is tightly pressed against the tapered surface of the joint body under pressure, thereby It can reliably prevent leakage.
The advantages of this form of connection are:

  1. Small size, light weight, simple structure, easy assembly and disassembly;
  2. Strong connection, wide range of use, can withstand high pressure (1000 kg / cm), high temperature (650 ° C) and shock vibration
  3. Can choose a variety of materials, suitable for anti-corrosion;
  4. Processing accuracy requirements are not high; easy to install at high altitude.
  5. The ferrule connection form has been adopted in some small diameter valve products in China.

Clamp connection

This is a quick connection method that requires only two bolts for low pressure valves that are often removed.

Self-tightening connection

All of the above connection forms use external force to offset the medium pressure and achieve sealing. The following describes the connection form that uses the medium pressure for self-tightening. Its sealing ring is installed at the inner cone, at an angle to the opposite side of the medium, the medium pressure is transmitted to the inner cone, and is transmitted to the sealing ring. At a certain angle of the cone surface, two component forces are generated, one and The centerline of the valve body is parallel to the outside and the other is pressed against the inner wall of the valve body. The latter part of the force is self-tightening. The greater the medium pressure, the greater the self-tightening force. Therefore, this type of connection is suitable for high pressure valves. It is more connected to the flange and saves a lot of material and manpower, but it also requires a certain pre-tightening force, so that it can be used reliably when the pressure inside the valve is not high. Valves made using the principle of self-tightening are generally high pressure valves.
There are many forms of valve connections, such as small valves that do not have to be removed, welded to the pipe; some non-metallic valves, socketed connections, and so on. Valve users should be treated according to the circumstances of the break.

Valve related accessories

There are valves and fittings, they are used in the connection or control system of the pipeline. Valves and fittings cannot exist independently and complement each other. Valve fittings are made of carbon steel and stainless steel, as well as PVC, or other materials. The first two are commonly used. In recent years, with the improvement of people’s living standards, the demand for non-staple foods has also increased. It’s up. Therefore, the rapid development of food machinery has been promoted, so the stainless steel sanitary valve fittings production industry has become popular. People usually say that the valve fittings are mostly stainless steel sanitary grade.

Valve maintenance

Claim

  1. The valve should be stored in a dry and ventilated room, and both ends of the passage must be blocked.
  2. Valves stored for a long time should be inspected regularly to remove dirt and apply anti-rust oil on the processing surface.
  3. After installation, it should be inspected regularly, mainly for inspection items:
  • Wear of the sealing surface.
  • Trapezoidal thread wear of the stem and stem nut.
  • Whether the filler is out of date or not, and if it is damaged, it should be replaced in time.
  • After the valve is overhauled and assembled, the sealing performance test shall be carried out.

Valves in operation, all valve parts should be complete and intact. The bolts on the flange and the bracket are indispensable, the thread should be intact and no looseness is allowed. The tightening nut on the hand wheel should be tightened if it is loose, so as not to wear the joint or lose the handwheel and nameplate. If the handwheel is lost, it is not allowed to replace it with a wrench. It should be timely. The packing gland is not allowed to be skewed or has no pre-tightening clearance. For valves in environments that are susceptible to contamination by rain, snow, dust, sand, etc., the valve stem should be fitted with a protective cover. The scale on the valve should be complete, accurate and clear. The seals, caps and pneumatic accessories of the valve should be completed. The insulation jacket should be free from dents and cracks. It is not allowed to tap, stand or support heavy objects on a running valve; especially non-metallic valves and cast iron valves are prohibited.

Valve grease maintenance

The professional maintenance work of the valve before and after the production before the welding plays a vital role in the service of the valve. The correct and orderly maintenance will protect the valve, make the valve function properly and extend the valve. life. Valve maintenance work seems simple, but it is not. There are often neglected aspects of work.

  • First, when the valve is greased, the problem of the amount of grease is often ignored. After the grease gun is refueled, the operator selects the valve and the grease injection method to perform the grease filling operation. There are two cases: on the one hand, the amount of grease is less than that of the grease, and the sealing surface is accelerated by the lack of lubricant. On the other hand, excessive fat injection causes waste. There is no accurate calculation of the different valve sealing capacities based on the valve type category. The sealing capacity can be calculated in terms of valve size and type, and a proper amount of grease can be injected reasonably.
  • Second, when the valve is greased, the pressure problem is often ignored. During the grease injection operation, the grease injection pressure changes regularly in the peaks and valleys. The pressure is too low, the seal leaks or fails, the pressure is too high, the grease injection port is blocked, the seal grease hardens or the seal ring and the valve ball and the valve plate are locked. Usually, when the grease pressure is too low, the injected grease flows into the bottom of the valve chamber, which usually occurs in a small gate valve. On the one hand, the grease injection pressure is too high. On the one hand, the grease injection nozzle is checked. If the grease hole is blocked, the situation is replaced. On the other hand, the grease is hardened. The cleaning fluid is used to repeatedly soften the failed sealing grease and inject a new grease. . In addition, the sealing type and sealing material also affect the grease filling pressure. Different sealing forms have different grease filling pressures. Generally, the hard sealing grease pressure is higher than the soft sealing.
  • Third, when the valve is greased, pay attention to the problem that the valve is in the switch position. Ball valve maintenance is generally in the open position, in special circumstances, choose to turn off maintenance. Other valves cannot be discussed in terms of opening. The gate valve must be closed during maintenance to ensure that the grease fills the seal groove along the seal. If it is open, the seal grease will fall directly into the runner or valve cavity, causing waste.
  • Fourth, when the valve is greased, the problem of grease injection is often ignored. The pressure, grease injection amount and switch position are normal during the grease filling operation. However, in order to ensure the grease filling effect of the valve, it is sometimes necessary to open or close the valve to check the lubrication effect and confirm that the valve ball or the surface of the valve is evenly lubricated.
  • Fifth, when filling grease, pay attention to the problem of valve body sewage discharge and wire plug pressure relief. After the valve pressure test, the gas and moisture in the valve chamber of the sealed chamber are boosted due to the increase of the ambient temperature. When the grease is injected, the drain and pressure should be drained first, so as to facilitate the smooth operation of the grease injection work. After the grease is applied, the air and moisture in the sealed chamber are sufficiently replaced. Timely discharge of the valve chamber pressure also ensures the safety of the valve. After the grease is applied, be sure to tighten the drain and pressure relief plug to prevent accidents.
  • Sixth, when filling the grease, pay attention to the problem of uniform grease. In normal fat injection, the fat-producing hole closest to the grease injection port first comes out of fat, then to the low point, and finally to the high point, and the fat is successively produced. If it is not in accordance with the law or does not produce fat, it proves that there is clogging and clearing treatment in time.
  • Seventh, when filling the grease, also observe the problem that the valve diameter and the seal ring are flush. For example, if there is a ball valve, if there is an open position, the position limiter can be adjusted inward to confirm that the path is straight and locked. Adjusting the limit can not only pursue the opening or closing of a position, but should be considered as a whole. If the opening position is flush and not closed, the valve will not be closed. In the same way, if the adjustment is in place, it is also necessary to consider the corresponding adjustment. Make sure the valve is at right angles.
  • Eighth, after the grease is applied, the grease injection port must be sealed. Avoid the entry of impurities, or the oxidation of lipids at the grease injection port. Apply anti-rust grease to the cover to avoid rust. So that it will be applied the next time.
  • Ninth, when filling grease, it is also necessary to consider the specific issues in the future delivery of oil products. In view of the different qualities of diesel and gasoline, the ability to flush and decompose gasoline should be considered. In the future valve operation, when encountering the gasoline section, timely replenish the grease to prevent wear.
  • Tenth, when filling grease, do not ignore the grease filling on the stem. There is a sliding bushing or packing on the valve shaft, and it is also necessary to maintain the lubrication state to reduce the frictional resistance during operation. If the lubrication cannot be ensured, the torque is increased during the electric operation, and the switch is laborious during manual operation.
  • Eleventh, some ball valve body is marked with an arrow, if there is no English FIOW handwriting, it is the sealing seat action direction, not as a medium flow direction reference, the valve is in the opposite direction. Typically, a two-seat sealed ball valve has a two-way flow direction.
  • Twelfth, when the valve is maintained, pay attention to the water in the motor and its transmission mechanism. Especially the rain that infiltrates during the rainy season. One is to rust the transmission mechanism or the transmission bushing, and the other is to freeze in winter. The torque caused by the operation of the electric valve is too large. Damage to the transmission components may cause the motor to be unloaded or the over-torque protection may not be electrically operated. The drive components are damaged and manual operation is not possible. After the over-torque protection action, the manual operation also fails to switch. For example, forced operation will damage the internal alloy parts.

Common problem

Why does the double seal valve not be used as a shut-off valve?

The advantage of the double seat valve spool is the force balance structure, which allows a large differential pressure, and its outstanding disadvantage is that the two sealing faces cannot be in good contact at the same time, resulting in a large leak. If it is artificially and forcibly used to cut off the occasion, it is obviously not effective, even if it has made many improvements (such as double-sealed sleeve valves), it is not advisable.

Why does the two-seat valve easily oscillate when working at a small opening?

For a single core, the valve stability is good when the medium is flow-opening; the stability of the valve is poor when the medium is flow-closed. The double seat valve has two spools, the lower spool is closed, and the upper spool is open. Thus, when working at a small opening, the flow-closed spool is liable to cause vibration of the valve. This is a double seat valve. Can not be used for small opening work.

What kind of straight stroke control valve has poor anti-blocking performance, and the anti-blocking performance of the angular stroke valve is good?

The straight-stroke valve spool is vertically throttled, and the medium flows horizontally in and out, and the flow passage in the valve chamber is inevitably turned and inverted, making the flow path of the valve quite complicated (shape is inverted S-type). In this way, there are many dead zones that provide space for the precipitation of the medium, which in the long run causes blockage. The direction of the angular stroke valve throttling is the horizontal direction. The medium flows horizontally and horizontally, which makes it easy to take away the dirty medium. At the same time, the flow path is simple, and the space for the medium to precipitate is also small, so the anti-blocking performance of the angular stroke valve is good.

Why is the cut-off pressure difference of the angular stroke type valve larger?

The cut-off pressure difference of the angular stroke type valve is large because the resultant force of the medium on the valve core or the valve plate generates a very small torque to the rotating shaft, and therefore, it can withstand a large pressure difference.

Why is the straight stroke control valve stem thin?

It involves a simple mechanical principle: large sliding friction and low rolling friction. The valve stem of the straight stroke valve moves up and down, and the packing is slightly pressed tightly, which will tightly seal the valve stem and produce a large backlash. For this reason, the valve stem is designed to be very small, and the filler is also commonly used with a small friction coefficient of PTFE filler to reduce the backlash, but the problem is that the valve stem is thin, the bend is easy, and the filler life is short. The best way to solve this problem is to use the travel valve stem, that is, the angular stroke type regulating valve. Its valve stem is 2 to 3 times thicker than the straight stroke valve stem, and the graphite packing with long life is selected. Well, the filler has a long life and what is a hard seal?

The shut-off valve requires that the leakage is as low as possible, the leakage of the soft-sealed valve is the lowest, and the cutting effect is of course good, but it is not wear-resistant and has poor reliability. From the double standard of small leakage, sealing and reliability, the soft seal cut is not as good as the hard seal cut. Such as full-featured ultra-light regulating valve, sealed and protected by wear-resistant alloy, high reliability, leakage rate of 10 to 7, has been able to meet the requirements of the shut-off valve.

Valves and typical operating sizes

Type of Valve Minimum Size Maximum Size
mm inches mm inches
Ball 6 1220 48
Butterfly 50 2 1830 72
Butterfly Neck 25 1 1830 72
Gate 3 1/8 1220 48
Globe 3 1/8 760 30
Plug Lubricated 6 760 30
Plug non lubricated 6 406 16
Swing Check 6 610 24
Swing Check Y-type 6 150 6
Lift Check 6 250 10
Tilting disc 50 2 760 30
Diaphragm 3 1/8 610 24
Y Oblique 3 1/8 760 30
Slide 50 2 1900 75
Pinch 25 1 305 12
Needle 3 1/8 25 1

Model preparation of valves

The valve model shall generally indicate the valve type, driving mode, connection type, structural features, sealing surface material, valve body material and nominal pressure, etc. The standardization of valve model provides convenience for valve design, selection and sales. Nowadays, there are more and more types and materials of valves, and the model establishment of valves is becoming more and more complicated. Although there is a unified standard for valve model establishment in China, it is increasingly unable to meet the needs of valve industry development. Any new type of valve which can not use standard number, all manufacturers can make models according to their own needs.
The standard of valve model preparation method is applicable to industrial pipeline Gate valve , throttle valve globe valve ,  butterfly valve ,  Diaphragm valve ,  Plunger valve ,  Plug valve ,  Check valve ,  Safety valve ,  Pressure relief valve ,  Drain valve Etc. It includes the designation of the valve type and the designation of the valve.

Specific compilation method of valve model

Understanding the diagram on the left is the first step to understand various valve models. Here is an example to give you a general understanding:
Valve model: “z961y-100i DN 150” this is a complete gate valve model. The final “DN 150” is not included in the compilation, which means the valve diameter is 150 mm, which is easy to understand. The front part: “z961y-100i” is seated according to the sequence diagram above, as follows:
“Z” is 1 unit; “9” is 2 units; “6” is 3 units; “1” is 4 units; “Y” is 5 units; “100” is 6 units; “I” is unit 7
The meaning of this valve model is: gate valve, electric drive, welding connection, wedge single gate, cemented carbide seal, 10MPa pressure, chrome molybdenum steel valve body material.
Unit 1: valve type code
Type
Safety valve
Butterfly valve
Diaphragm valve
Check valve
(bottom valve)
Globe valve
throttle valve
Blowdown valve
globe valve
Drain valve
Plunger valve
Plug valve
Pressure relief valve
Gate valve
Code name
A
D
G
H
J
L
P
Q
S
U
X
Y
Z
For valves with other functions or special mechanisms, a Chinese character should be added before the valve type code
Pinyin alphabet, as specified in the following table:
Type
Thermal insulation
Low temperature type
Fireproof type
Slowly closed type
Deslagging type
Fast type
(stem seal) Bellows type
Code name
B
D
F
H
P
Q
W
Unit 2: transmission mode
Transmission
mode
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetic hydraulic
Electro hydraulic
Worm gear
Spur gear
Bevel gear
Pneumatic
Hydrodynamics
Pneumatic hydraulic
Electric
Handle
handwheel
Code name
zero
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
No code
Unit 3: connection type
Connection mode
Internal thread
External thread
Two different connections
Flange
Welding
Counter clamp
Clamp
Ferrule
Code name
one
two
three
four
six
seven
eight
nine
Unit 4: structural type
Structural type code of gate valve
Structural style
Code name
Stem lifting type
(rising pole)
Wedge gate
Elastic RAM
zero
Rigid gate
Single ram
one
Double ram
two
Parallel gate
Single ram
three
Double ram
four
Non lifting stem
(concealed rod)
Wedge gate
Single ram
five
Double ram
six
Parallel gate
Single ram
seven
Double ram
eight

Code of structure type of stop valve, throttle valve and plunger valve

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Disc unbalanced
Straight channel
one
Disc balanced
Straight channel
six
Z-channel
two
Angle channel
seven
Tee channel
three
Angle channel
four
Direct flow channel
five

Code of ball valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Floating ball
Straight channel
one
Fixed ball
Straight channel
seven
Y-shaped tee
two
Four way channel
six
L-shaped tee
four
eight
T-shaped tee
five
L-shaped tee
nine
Hemispherical straight through
zero

Code of butterfly valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Sealed type
Single eccentricity
zero
Unsealed
Single eccentricity
five
Center vertical plate
one
Center vertical plate
six
Double eccentricity
two
Double eccentricity
seven
Three eccentricities
three
Three eccentricities
eight
Linkage mechanism
four
Linkage mechanism
nine

Code of diaphragm valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Ridge channel
one
Straight channel
six
Direct flow channel
five
Y-shaped angle channel
eight

Code of plug valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Packing seal
Straight channel
three
Oil seal
Straight channel
seven
T-shaped tee
four
T-shaped tee
eight
Four way channel
five

Code of check valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Lifting disc
Straight channel
one
Swing disc
UNIVALVED structure
four
Vertical structure
two
Multilobed structure
five
Angle channel
three
Bicuspid structure
six
Butterfly check type
seven

Code of safety valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Spring loaded spring seal structure
Full open type with heat sink
zero
Spring load spring not closed and with wrench structure
Micro lift, double valve
three
Micro open
one
Micro open
seven
Full swing
two
Full swing
eight
Full open type with wrench
four
Lever type
Single lever
two
Full open type with control mechanism
six
Double lever
four
Pulse type
nine

Code of structure type of pressure reducing valve

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Membrane type
one
Bellows type
four
Spring film type
two
Lever type
five
Piston type
three

Steam trap Code of structural form

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Floating ball
one
Steam pressure type or capsule type
six
Floating bucket
three
Bimetallic chip
seven
Liquid or solid expansion type
four
Pulse type
eight
Bell float type
five
Disc type
nine

Code of drain valve structure

Structural style
Code name
Structural style
Code name
Level connection drain
Cut off straight through
one
Intermittent discharge of liquid bottom
Cut off DC type
five
Cut off angle type
two
Cut off straight through
six
Cut off angle type
seven
Floating gate type straight through type
eight
Unit 5: material code of sealing surface and lining
Sealing surface or lining material
Tin based bearing alloy (Babbitt)
Enamel
Nitriding steel
Fluoroplastics
Ceramics
Cr13 series stainless steel
Rubber lining
Monel alloy
Code name
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
M
Sealing surface or lining material
Nylon plastics
Boronizing steel
Lead lining
austenitic stainless steel
Plastic
copper alloy
rubber
Cemented carbide
Code name
N
P
Q
R
S
T
X
Y
Unit 6: nominal pressure value
Expressed directly in Arabic numerals, the value is 10 times the value in MPA units.
Unit 7: valve body material
Valve body
Material Science
Titanium and
titanium alloy
Carbon steel
Cr13 series
stainless steel
Chromium molybdenum steel
Malleable iron
Aluminium alloy
18-8 series
stainless steel
Ductile iron
Mo2ti system
stainless steel
Plastic
Copper and
copper alloy
Cr Mo V steel
Gray cast iron
Code name
A
C
H
I
K
L
P
Q
R
S
T
V
Z

This item is omitted for gray cast iron low pressure valve and steel medium pressure valve.

How to calculate the size of the valve?

In order to calculate the size of the valve, you need to know the parameters related to circuit operation.

  1. Pressure
  2. Temperature
  3. Flow
  4. Diameter

Pressure is an important factor that must be considered. On the one hand, it is to avoid too small valve size to avoid the problem of valve leakage or rupture, on the other hand, it is to avoid too large valve size.
It is necessary to determine the operating temperature, that is, the temperature of the circulating medium and the ambient temperature around the valve body. It is important to know the extreme temperatures that the valve needs to withstand in order to be able to select the valves that can be used to operate under these conditions, especially the materials used to manufacture the valve body, closing system and seals.
Working pressure, that is, the pressure at which the medium circulates in the valve.
Fluid flow and velocity. Flow rate and rated speed are the basic elements to help you select the right valve, especially the valve used to regulate this flow rate. The flow coefficient (kV) is the theoretical value specified by the manufacturer to calculate the nominal flow of the valve. It can be expressed in liters per minute (L / min) or cubic meters per hour (m3 / h). The valve manufacturer shall provide charts to determine this factor based on the required flow and nominal diameter.
Nominal diameter (DN) of the circuit in which the valve is located. This is essential to avoid valve oversize, which may lead to unstable equipment operation, or avoid large pressure drop and rapid valve damage caused by too small size.

How to select valves?

Before selecting a valve, you need to determine its purpose. Use a valve to regulate or stop the flow of fluid?
Then you need to determine the type of medium circulating in the system: gas or liquid? Is the medium corrosive, chemically neutral, food or medical liquid requiring special sanitary conditions?
When it comes to the operating system of the valve, you need to know whether it is manual or automatic. In the first case, someone must operate the valve on site, while in the other case, the valve can be operated remotely, such as from the control station.
Finally, it is important to understand how the valve will be integrated into the system and the type of assembly or installation used, especially if welding, bolts through flanges or screwed in are required.

Once these different elements are identified, you can focus on the technical characteristics of the installation, especially flow and pressure, to determine the size of the valve.

The suitability of the valve in a particular application depends on the materials associated with the delivery fluid and their mechanical design. The following table can be used as a guide for valve selection.

Conveyed Fluid Nature of Fluid Valve Function Type of Disc
Liquid Neutral On/Off Gate Valves
Rotary Ball Valves
Plug Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Butterfly Valves
Plug Gate Valves
Control valve, modulating Globe Valves
Butterfly Valves
Plug Gate Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Needle Valves
Corrosive (Acid, alkaline etc.) On/Off Gate Valves
Plug Gate Valves
Rotary Ball Valves
Plug Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Butterfly Valves
Control valve, modulating Globe Valves
Diaphragm
Butterfly Valves
Plug Gate Valves
Hygienic (Food, beverages, drugs etc) On/Off Butterfly Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Control valve, modulating Butterfly Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Squeeze Valves
Pinch Valves
Slurry On/Off Rotary Ball Valves
Butterfly Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Plug Valves
Pinch Valves
Squeeze Valves
Control valve, modulating Butterfly Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Squeeze Valves
Pinch Valves
Gate Valves
Fibrous Suspensions On/Off, Control valve, modulating Gate Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Squeeze Valves
Pinch Valves
Gas Neutral (Air, Steam etc) On/Off Gate Valves
Globe Valves
Rotary Ball Valves
Plug Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Control valve, modulating Globe Valves
Needle Valves
Butterfly Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Gate Valves
Corrosive (Acid vapors, chlorine etc.) On/Off Butterfly Valves
Rotary Ball Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Plug Valves
Control valve, modulating Butterfly Valves
Globe Valves
Needle Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Vacuum On/Off Gate Valves
Globe Valves
Rotary Ball Valves
Butterfly Valves
Solids Abrasive Powder (Silica, etc) On/Off, Control valve, modulating Pinch Valves
Squeeze Valves
Spiral Sock Valves
Lubricating powder (graphite, talcum, etc On/Off, Control valve, modulating Pinch Valves
Gate Valves
Spiral Sock Valves
Squeeze Valves

Source: China Valves Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.epowermetals.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@epowermetals.com

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