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What is a vane pump

What is a vane pump?

Vane pump is a pump in which the blades in the rotor groove contact the pump housing (stator ring) and press the inhaled liquid from the oil inlet side to the oil discharge side.

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Classification of vane pumps

Because there are two types of vane pumps in history:
1) Specifically refers to the sliding vane pump in the positive displacement pump.
2) It refers to the three pumps of power pump (centrifugal pump, mixed flow pump and axial flow pump) or other special pumps. This kind of pump product is generally not called vane pump. However, as a monograph, almost all vane pumps refer to centrifugal pumps, mixed flow pumps, axial flow pumps, etc. According to whether the theoretical displacement per revolution is fixed or variable, it can be divided into vane variable displacement pump and vane quantitative pump.

Operating principle of vane pump

When the vane pump rotor rotates, the tip of the vane is close to the inner surface of the stator under the action of centrifugal force and pressure oil. In this way, the working volume formed by the two blades and the inner surface of the rotor and stator first absorbs oil from small to large, and then discharges oil from large to small. When the blades rotate for one cycle, they complete oil absorption and drainage once.

Working principle of single acting vane pump

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Vane pump
The pump is composed of rotor 1, stator 2, blade 3, oil distribution plate and end cover. The inner surface of the stator is a cylindrical hole. There is eccentricity between rotor and stator. The blade can slide flexibly in the slot of the rotor. Under the action of centrifugal force during rotor rotation and pressure oil flowing into the blade root, the top of the blade is close to the inner surface of the stator, so a sealed working cavity is formed between two adjacent blades, oil distribution plate, stator and rotor. When the rotor rotates counterclockwise, the blade on the right side of the figure extends outward, and the volume of the sealing working chamber gradually increases to generate a vacuum, so the oil is sucked through the oil suction port 6 and the upper window of the oil distribution pan 5. On the left side of the figure. The blade is retracted inward, the volume of the sealing cavity is gradually reduced, and the oil in the sealing cavity is pressed out through another window of the oil distribution plate and the oil pressure port 1 and output to the system. This kind of pump absorbs oil and presses oil once in the process of rotor rotation, so it is called single acting pump. The rotor is subjected to radial hydraulic unbalanced force, so it is also called unbalanced pump, and its bearing load is large. Changing the eccentricity between stator and rotor can change the displacement of the pump, so this kind of pump is variable displacement pump.

Working principle of double acting vane pump

Its working principle is similar to that of single acting vane pump, except that the stator surface is composed of two long radius arcs, two short radius arcs and four transition curves, and the stator and rotor are concentric. When the rotor rotates clockwise as shown in the figure, the volume of the sealing working chamber gradually increases at the upper left corner and lower right corner, which is the oil absorption area, and gradually decreases at the lower left corner and upper right corner, which is the oil pressure area; There is an oil sealing area between the oil absorption area and the oil pressure area to separate them. The rotor of this pump rotates once, and each sealing working chamber completes oil suction and oil pressure twice, so it is called double acting vane pump. The two oil suction areas and two oil pressure areas of the pump are radially symmetrical, and the hydraulic pressure acting on the rotor is radially balanced, so it is also called balanced vane pump.
The instantaneous flow of double acting vane pump is pulsating. When the number of blades is a multiple of 4, the pulsation rate is small. Therefore, the number of blades of double acting vane pump is generally 12 or 16.

Management of vane pump

In addition to preventing dry running and overload, air suction and excessive vacuum suction, the management points of vane pump shall also pay attention to:

  • 1. If the pump steering changes, its suction and discharge direction will also change. Vane pumps have specified steering and reverse rotation is not allowed. Because the rotor blade groove is inclined, the blade is chamfered, the bottom of the blade is connected with the oil discharge chamber, and the throttling groove, suction and discharge ports on the oil distribution plate are designed according to the established steering. Reversible vane pumps must be specially designed.
  • 2. The oil distribution plate and stator of vane pump shall be correctly positioned with locating pins. The blades, rotor and oil distribution plate shall not be installed reversely. The suction area on the inner surface of stator is most vulnerable to wear. If necessary, it can be overturned and installed to make the original suction area become a discharge area and continue to be used.
  • 3. Pay attention to the cleanliness of the working surface during disassembly and assembly, and the oil shall be well filtered during operation.
  • 4. If the clearance of the blade in the blade slot is too large, the leakage will increase. If it is too small, the blade cannot expand and contract freely, which will lead to abnormal operation.
  • 5. Axial clearance of vane pump ηv has a great impact. 1) Small pump -0.015 ~ 0.03mm. 2) medium pump -0.02 ~ 0.045mm2. Generally, the temperature and viscosity of oil shall not exceed 55 ℃, and the viscosity shall be between 17 ~ 37mm2/s. If the viscosity is too high, it is difficult to absorb oil; If the viscosity is too small, the leakage is serious. As a pump product, vane pump refers more to sliding vane pump. Almost all vane pumps refer to sliding vane pumps.

Source: China Pipe Fitting Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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